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Pre-Man and Prehistoric Man 


By George GrantMacCurdy,Ph.D. 


Highlights of Modern Knowledge 






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til 33 c 


Copyright, 1932, 1935, by 


First Trade Edition 1935 

Maivifuctuned Jn 'the ,U. S. A. 



I Earth and Life 1 

II Life and Man 4 

III Man's Nearest of Kin 5 

Primate Characters — Distinctions Between Man and 
the Other Primates — Other Proofs of Relationships — 

IV Man's Ascent 12 

V Fossil Man— I 18 

The Java Man — The Peking Man — The Piltdown 
Man — The Heidelberg Man — The Ehringsdorf-Tau- 
bach Man — The Krapina Man — The Neandertal 
Man — The Discoveries at Gibraltar — The Discoveries 
in Neander Valley — The Discoveries at Spy, Bel- 
gium — The Discoveries at Le Moustier, France — The 
Discoveries at La Chapelle-aux-Saints — The Skeletons 
from La Ferrassie — The Discoveries at La Quina — The 
Discoveries in Rhodesia — The Discoveries in Galilee — 
, Summary 

VI Fossil Man— II 37 

The Cro-Magnon Race — The First Cro-Magnon Dis- 
coveries — The Grimaldi Skeletons — The Paviland 
Skeleton — The Finds at Predmost and Brno, Mo- 
ravia — Other Discoveries — Summary 

VII Beginnings of Culture 42 

Cultural Chronology — Correlation of Ice Age and Pre- 
historic Chronology — The Evidence of Human Evolu- 
tion — Chronology Based on Stratigraphy 

VIII The Culture of the Paleolithic Period 49 

The Chellean Epoch — The Acheulian Epoch — The 
Mousterian Epoch — The Aurignacian Epoch — The 

8954 Z 



Solutrean Epoch — The Magdalenian Epoch — Inter- 
esting Achievements in Non-lithic Materials — Cave Art 

IX The Culture of the Mesolithic Period 61 

The Phases of the Period — The Azilian Phase in 
Western Europe — The Tardenoisian Phase in Western 
Europe — The Maglemosean Phase in Scandinavia — 
The Asturian Phase in Spain — The Shell-Heap Phase — 
The Campignian Phase in France 

X The Culture of the Neolithic Period 66 

The Factors Which Produced a Change from the Mes- 
olithic Period — Satisfying the Artistic Impulses — The 
Pile Villages — The Megalithic Monuments — The Cen- 
ters of Neolithic Culture 

XI The Culture of the Bronze Age 72 

The Most Revolutionary Step Ever Taken by Man — 
Copper and Gold the Earliest Metals Used — The 
Origins of the Terms Bronze, Copper, and Tin — The 
Four Epochs of the Bronze Age 

XII The Culture of the Iron Age 77 

Its Beginnings — The Hallstatt Epoch — The Type 
Center — Hallstatt Weapons — Vases, Pottery, and 
Metal Vessels — Dress and Ornamentation — The Epoch 
of La Tene — The Type Station — La Tene Weapons 
and Tools — La Tene Coins — La Tene Articles of 
Adornment — La Tene Razors and Other Toilet Arti- 
cles — La Tene Amulets — La Tene Burial Customs — 
The Center of La Tene Culture 

XIII Elements and Growth of Prehistoric Culture .... 91 

XIV Food Getting 92 

Resorting to Magic for Food — Winning Against Brute 
Strength — Man Begins to Produce Food 

XV Habitations 96 

Natural Caves and Rock Shelters — Moor Villages — 
Pile Villages — The Terramare of Italy and the Cran- 
nogs of Ireland 



XVI Fortifications 98 

Earth Fortifications — Stone Forts 

XVII Clothing, Ornament, and Toilet 101 

Garment Making— Early Costumes — Jewelry — Toilet 

XVIII The Taming of Fire 105 

XIX Art and Religion 107 

Art the Handmaid of Religion — Cave Man's Art Still 
Being Discovered — The Primitive Art of the Nean- 
dertal Man — How Man First Came to Be an Artist — 
The Problems of the Cave Artist — Adorning the 
Javelin Thrower — Animal Models — Human Models — 
Significance of Cave Art — Changes in Culture — Burial 
Rites — Monuments to the Dead — Other Monuments — 
Megalithic Art and Symbolism — The Ax the Most 
Frequent Symbol — The Sun as a Symbol 

XX Language, Music, and Writing 123 

Language Connects Mind with Mind — Music as 
Ancient as Language — Writing Is an Eye Language — 
The Beginning of Systematic Writing 

XXI Labor and Industry 125 

Labor Not a Curse — Division of Labor — Grinding 
Grain, Woman's Work — Agriculture — Flax the Chief 
Textile Material — Mining — Flint Mining an Impor- 
tant Industry — Salt Mining — Ore Mining Begins in 
the Bronze Age 

XXII Domestication of Animals and Plants 129 

XXIII Transportation 131 

Man Can Carry More Than His Own Weight— The 
Invention of the Wheel 

XXIV Commerce 133 

Commerce First Tempts, Then Rewards — Flint as an 
Exchange Commodity — Amber Valuable and Impor- 
tant — Sources of Salt Supply — Metals the Greatest 
Stimulus to Commerce — Commerce Increases Culture — 
How and Where Treasures Were Stored 



XXV The Healing Art 137 

Prehistoric Diseases — Surgery Practiced in Neolithic 
Times — The Fire Cure 

XXVI Textiles and Pottery 139 

XXVII Metallurgy 143 

An Accidental Discovery — The First Metallurgical 
Furnace — The Discovery of Alloys — Casting of Metals 
Paves Way to Modern Era 

Suggestions for Further Reading 145 

Glossary 146 

Index 149 


Pre-Man and Prehistoric Man 

By George Grant Mac Curdy, Ph.D. 

research associate in prehistoric archeology and 
curator of anthropology, emeritus, yale uni- 
versity; honorary collaborator united states 
national museum; director, american school 
of prehistoric research 


My Wife 

Figures 4, 8, 10, 11, 13, 15, 17, 18, 19, 27, 29, 31, 37, 38, 39, 42, 46, 48, 54, 
and 57 appeared in the author's book, Human Origins, and are used in this book 
with the courteous permission of the publishers, D. Appleton and Co. 


After having written a two-volume work of more than a 
thousand pages in 1924* the author has had to labor under 
great difficulty, as the reader can readily understand, in order to 
cover practically the same ground within the limits of the present 
Series. On almost every page one is faced by the problem of 
where to eliminate, what to abridge, and to what should be given 
additional space. In a rapidly growing science values are con- 
stantly changing and new points of view arising. 

The task would have been serious enough had there been no 
new discoveries during the years since 1924. These have been 
so many and of such outstanding importance that an entire 
volume could be devoted to them alone. They have to do with 
various phases not only of man's physical but also of his cultural 
evolution. In some of these the author has had a humble part, 
both directly and indirectly, thanks to his position as Director 
of the American School of Prehistoric Research. It would be 
ungrateful of him, therefore, not to acknowledge in this place 
his debt to all those on this side of the Atlantic who have helped 
the School financially, and to his colleagues on the other side, 
who have given him and his students assistance in various ways, 
especially in opening gates of opportunity leading to fresh fields 
of prehistoric endeavor. If the help of any one person is to be 
given special mention, it should be that of the author's wife, who 
has been constant in service in field and in office, at home and 

New Haven 
November, 1931 

* Human Origins, D. Appleton & Co. 

Courtesy of American School of Prehistoric Research 


From Abri des Merveilles at Castel-Merle, near Sergeac, Dordogne 

About 4/5 actual size 



The earth seems to have been a child of the sun and as such 
was born about 2000 million years ago. There may still 
be sun stuff at its center. It began to wear a solid crust some 
1500 million years ago.* This time can be apportioned into 
eras as follows : 

Archeozoic 500 million years 

Proterozoic 500 

Paleozoic 330 

Mesozoic 110 

Cenozoic 60 

The Archeozoic era has been called the age of larval life, 
and the Proterozoic era the age of primitive marine inverte- 
brate life. Marine invertebrates were the highest type of fauna 
throughout the early Paleozoic era. With the middle of the 
Paleozoic era there appeared the first forests and the first verte- 
brates represented by fishes; before its close, the rise of am- 
phibians occurred. But the true era of amphibians came in 
the upper Paleozoic time which was also the age of spore-bearing 
plants. Gymnosperms (plants whose seeds are uncovered) 
appeared here and persisted throughout the early Mesozoic. 
Before the close of the Mesozoic era angiosperms (plants whose 
seeds are enclosed in a seed vessel) appeared and have con- 
tinued to flourish until the present. The Mesoz^'? era is pre- 
eminently an age of reptiles. During this era the curtain both 
rose and fell on dinosaurs, pterodactyls, and toothed birds; 
before its close there appeared true birds and small archaic 

The Cenozoic era is first and foremost an age of mammals 

* The author uses the chronology of Prof. Charles Schuchert of Yale ; compare 
with that used by Dr. Chester A. Reeds in "The Earth in this Series. — Editor. 





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and culminates in man. It may be divided into five epochs: 
Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene. The 
Eocene is marked by the spread of placental mammals; the 
Oligocene by the rise of anthropoids; the Miocene by the culmi- 
nation of mammals and of land plants; the Pliocene by the 
branching of hominids (man-like forms) from the parent ape 
trunk; and the Pleistocene by periodic glaciations and by man's 
gradual conquest of his environment. It should be noted in this 
connection that the Pleistocene is not the only epoch in which 
glaciations have occurred. The earliest glaciations date from 
the Proterozoic. There were also Permian glaciations, and in 
Australia, at least, Upper Cretaceous glaciations. 



Life is almost as old as the earth itself. It is of two kinds, 
plant and animal. At first it was very simple, unicellular. 
In their simplest forms plant life and animal life are so much 
alike that biologists find difficulty in determining whether a given 
form is animal or plant. In process of time both great groups 
grew in complexity and diversity. Combined they form the 
organic world. Plants feed upon the soil and upon other plants. 
Animals feed upon plants and upon other animals. There is a 
complete cycle from earth to plant, from plant to animal and 
back to earth again. The earth feeds two worlds of organic 
life and yet loses nothing. Organisms are in fair way to con- 
tinue as long as the earth exists. There is always room and 
substance for new forms of life as well as for all the old forms 
which are fit to survive. 

If it is difficult to divorce completely the plant world from 
the animal world, it is not strange that there should be difficulty 
in setting up insurpassable barriers between animal forms that 
resemble each other. All animal forms, living and extinct, are 
nearly enough akin to be compared with the trunk, the branches, 
and the twigs of a tree. 

Living man is the outermost, topmost twig, and may be 
traced back to a parent twig, to a small branch, to a larger 
branch, to a still larger branch, to a fork, and finally to the trunk. 
The problem is to start with the proper elevation on the trunk 
and trace outwardly, naming as one goes, the various stages 
until one reaches that outermost, topmost twig — Homo sapiens. 

In default of a moving-picture of all the evolutionary proc- 
esses bound up in the life and growth of this family tree, we 
are obliged to reconstruct it as best we may by the aid of experi- 
mentation, observation, imagination, and the piecing together 
of all the evidence however fragmentary the latter may be. 




Man is a multicellular animal and hence belongs in the great 
class called Metazoa. Man has a backbone and is more 
nearly akin to all of the other vertebrates than to any of the 
invertebrates. Man has certain features in common with all 
animals belonging to a class known as mammals. Class 
Mammalia is divided into three subclasses: Prototheria, Meta- 
theria, and Eutheria. Prototheria bridge the gap between rep- 
tiles and mammals and are represented by two living forms, the 
ornithorhyncus, or duckbill, and the echidna. Metatheria in- 
clude marsupials such as the kangaroo and the opossum. 
Finally, Eutheria comprise mammals which nourish their young 
when in the uterus by means of a structure called the placenta. 
Man belongs to this subclass. 

The subclass Eutheria is divided into nine orders: 



EDENTATES Sloths, Armadillos, Ant-eaters, etc. 





Dugong and Manatee 

CETACEANS Whales, Porpoises, and Dolphins 




BATS Bats only 



INSECTIVORES Moles, Shrews, etc. 





Orders Members 

RODENTS Rabbits, Squirrels, Woodchucks, etc. 

(Gnawing Beavers, Muskrats, etc. 

mammals) Rats, Mice, Conies, etc. 

UNGULATES Cattle, Sheep, Goats, etc. 

(Hoofed Deer, Elk, Moose, Caribou, etc. 

mammals) Horses, Asses, Camels, etc. 

Elephants, Tapirs, Rhinoceroses, etc. 

Hogs, Peccaries, etc. 

CARNIVORES Cats, Lions, Tigers, Leopards, etc. 

(Flesh-eating Dogs, Wolves, Foxes, Coyotes, etc. 

mammals) Bears, Raccoons, Seals, etc. 

Minks, Weasels, Skunks, etc. 

PRIMATES Man, Apes, Monkeys, and Lemurs 

(First Order) 

Primate Characters 

Primates have certain characters in common, such as: 
prehensile* hands and feet, clavicle or collarbone, toes and 
fingers with flat nails instead of claws, two breasts as a rule, 
and a brain which may attain relatively great size and intricacy 
of pattern. They are divided into three suborders: Lemuroidea, 
Tarsioidea, and Anthropoidea. In Lemuroidea the eyes are set in 
a bony ring instead of a bowl and the eyes are directed outward. 
In Tarsioidea and Anthropoidea the eyes have not only a sur- 
rounding ring but have also a bony backwall forming a bowl; 
the eyes are directed forward so that the fields of vision overlap 
and give a stereoscopic image. 

Other characters of Anthropoidea include: tear ducts within 
the orbits, occipital lobes of the cerebrum overhanging the cere- 
bellum, brains relatively large and complex, only one pair of 
breasts and these located on the chest, and toes and fingers never 
clawed (except in one family). 

To the Anthropoidea belong the families of New World 
monkeys, Hapalidae and Cebidae, and the two families of Old 
World apes, Cercopithecidae and Simiidae. The New World 
monkeys have three premolars and are platyrrhine, or broad- 
nosed. Hapalidae have claw-like nails except those on the great 
toes, usually produce two or three young at birth, have no third 
molars, have a non-prehensile tail, and live in trees. The Cebidae 

* Prehensile, adapted for grasping and holding. 


Courtesy of New York Zoological Society 

are completely arboreal, are vegetarian as well as carnivorous, 
and some have a prehensile tail. 

The Old World apes have the same dental formula as man. 
The Cercopithecidae have patches of thickened, hairless skin on 
the posterior parts, called ischial callosities, some have food 
pouches in the cheeks, and the tail may be short or long, but is 
never prehensile. There are two genera : Semnopithecus and 
Cercopithecus. In Semnopithecus the thumb is vestigial; in 
Cercopithecus the thumb is well developed, there are cheek 
pouches, and one species has no tail. 

The family Simiidae is native to the Old World. Its mem- 
bers have no tail and no cheek pouches; likewise no ischial 
callosities (except the gibbon). The arms are longer than the 
legs and the chest is 
relatively wide and shal- 
low. There are four 
genera : the gibbon, 
orang-utan, chimpanzee, 
and gorilla. 

The gibbon is the 
smallest and the most 
agile in trees of all the 
anthropoids. It is char- 
acterized by the presence 
of small naked callosities 
on the buttocks, no lum- 
bar curve, essentially 
prehensile feet, extraor- 
dinarily long arms, nails 
almost like claws, thir- 
teen pairs of ribs (as 
is the case with the chim- 
panzee and gorilla ) . In From a P hot °9 ra P h *>y E - R - Sanborn 

captivity it frequently assumes an erect posture. It drinks by 
dipping the cupped hand into the liquid and lifting it to the 
mouth. The gibbon does not build itself a nest, but simply roosts 
in a tree as do monkeys. The home of the gibbon is southeastern 
Asia and the adjacent islands. 

The orang-utan is bulky and powerful with relatively short 




legs, prominent abdomen, extremely long arms and hands, 
opposable great toes, large head but relatively small brain, twelve 
pairs of ribs, extra bony element (os centrale) in the wrist not 
found in other anthropoids and man, and but one offspring at 

Courtesy of New York Zoological Society 




Not full grown 
From a photograph by E. R. Sanborn 

r^ . 


birth. The orang-utan is almost exclusively arboreal, builds 
nests in the branches of trees, and is confined to Borneo and 

The chimpanzee has about the same life span and weight as 
man with limb proportions more like those of man than those of 


left, chimpanzee; center, gorilla; right, man 
(Affcr Morton) 

the orang-utan. It is an expert climber and builds nests in the 
branches of trees. It is the most sociable of all the great apes 
and biting is its chief means of defense. The chimpanzee is at 
home in the tropical forests of Africa. 

The home of the gorilla is likewise tropical Africa, but its 
range is more restricted than is the case with the chimpanzee. 
It lives mostly on the ground and its foot is not unlike the human 
foot. The gorilla is the most powerful of the primates, with 
arm segments approaching the human proportions. 


Distinctions Between Man and the Other Primates 

Man is distinguished from the other primates in having a 
nose with prominent bridge and tip, median furrow in upper lip, 
outrolled lips showing mucous membrane, a chin, a lumbar curve, 
non-opposable great toes, arched feet, canine teeth that do not 
project appreciably beyond the other teeth, a relatively large 
brain (two or three times as large as the gorilla's), a relatively 
hairless body, and an unlimited habitat. According to Sir Arthur 
Keith of London man shares 98 characters with the chimpanzee, 
87 with the gorilla, S6 with the orang, 84 with the gibbon, 60 
with the New World monkeys, and 53 with the Old World 

The English biologist, Thomas Huxley, proved that "what- 
ever system of organs be studied, the comparison of their modifi- 
cation in the ape series leads to one and the same result — that 
the structural differences which separate man from the gorilla 
and the chimpanzee are not so great as those which separate the 
gorilla from the lower apes." His conclusion was that man 
must be classified as one of the primates. If man is a primate he 
is ascended from a primate and at least remotely related to all 
other primates. 

Other Proofs of Relationships 

We have seen how close is the physical relationship between 
man and the lower animals. Recent investigations prove a rela- 
tionship in a physiological sense. The transfusion of blood fur- 
nishes the test. A harmonious mingling is found to take place, 
"when the blood of a horse is transfused into an ass, that of a 
hare into a rabbit, that of an orang-utan into a gibbon, that of a 
man into a chimpanzee." But when the blood of man is trans- 
fused into a cat, a dog, a horse, or a non-anthropoid ape, a dis- 
tinct disturbance is set up, characterized by the destruction of 
red blood corpuscles. According to G. H. F. Nuttall, professor 
of zoology, Cambridge University, England, biochemical reac- 
tions of the blood show even more convincingly the relationship 
between man and the other primates. 

Another convincing relationship test is that apes and monkeys 
are subject to inoculation from syphilis, the virulence of the infec- 


tion increasing with the nearness of the relationship to man of 
the various animals in question. The reactions are strongest in 
the chimpanzee, fairly strong in the orang-utan and weak in 
monkeys. The relative sizes of the red blood corpuscles furnish 
still another test of kinship. Among primates the diameter of 
the red blood corpuscles increases from the lemurs up to man. 


By applying the principle that structural resemblances point 
to a relationship one is forced to admit that man is an animal 
whatever else he may be. We have to call him a vertebrate, we 
cannot avoid calling him a mammal; there is, then, no reason 
why we should kick at having to call him a primate. According 
to Dr. Earnest Albert Hooton of Harvard University, "The 
lemur insinuates that he is our remote relation; the monkey 
asserts his kinship with us, the anthropoid ape proclaims it from 
the tree-tops. Man shows his primate origin in every bodily 
character, and if he is a rational being he must admit this self- 
evident relationship." 



MAN may have to admit his relationship to existing pri- 
mates, but this does not mean that he is ascended from 
any one of them. It simply means that he will have to trace his 
and their ancestral lines backward for a long period of time 
before the lines converge. In his ascent man did not pass 
through a chimpanzee stage any more than the chimpanzee has 
passed through a human stage. Man's origin must be studied 
not only through a comparative survey of living forms but also 
through fossil forms. The student must know man's paleontol- 
ogy and geology as well as his biology. The evidence points to 
a tree-dwelling ancestry for all mammals except the lowly 
monotremes of Australia. The structure of ankle and wrist, 
even in modern terrestrial mammals, harks back to an arboreal 
ancestry. The having of five digits on hands and feet and the 
power of opposing the first digit to the others put a premium on 
tree-climbing. Four-footed ground-walking would in time de- 
stroy the mobility of the primitive mammalian forelimb. This, 
however, could be, and was, overcome by developing claws with 
which to dig into the bark of trees. 

The fore and hind limbs of the early tree-climbing mammals 
were practically alike. The use of the forelimb for suspension 
and grasping brought about a differentiation, and supporting the 
weight of the body fell to the hind limbs. Only the lower pri- 
mates developed a suspensory function in the hind foot. The 
lemurs and American monkeys climb a tree headforemost and 
climb down headfirst also; whereas the higher primates, which 
have developed a stabilizing and supporting function in the hind 
limbs, climb a tree headforemost and back down sternforemost, 
as does man. 

A primitive land-dwelling quadruped mammal needs a pro- 
jecting snout for touching things and conveying tactile impres- 




sions to the brain. The snout also serves as a food conveyor. 
A snout is useless on an arboreal mammal. With its free and 
mobile forelimbs food is conveyed to the mouth and objects are 
brought in contact with the organs of smell and taste, or into 




e' o-sen 

from two Greek 
words: eos, 
dawn, and 
kainos, recent 

Tarsioids (from Gr. tarsos, flat surface, from shape of foot + Fr. 
oide, like) first hand feeders. From one of these arboreal Tertiary 
tarsioids, the Anthropoidea including man has evolved 

oi i -go-sen 
from two Greek 
words: oligos, 
little, and 
kainos, recent 

The oldest fossil remains of a monkey with nostrils separated by 
a narrow septum and directed downward (Parapithecus, from Gr. 
para, near -j- pithecus, ape. Fossil remains of an anthropoid ape 
called Propliopithecus, from Gr. pro, before + plio, more + 
pithecus, ape 

mi' o-sen 
from two Greek 
words: meion, 
less, and 
kainos, recent 

An ancestor of the orang has almost certainly been found in middle 
Miocene deposits of India — Palaeosimia (from Gr. paleo, old + 
simia, simian ape). Some species of Dryopitbecus (from Gr. drys, 
trees + pithecus, ape) apparently lead to the chimpanzee and 

from two Greek 
words: pleion, 
more, and 
kainos* recent 

The fossil remains of a probable descendant of Propliopithecus 
from the lower Pliocene of Germany, called Pliopithecus (more ape 
[see above]). Pliopithecus is almost a full fledged gibbon 

from two Greek 
words: pleistos 
most, and 
kainos, recent 

A ustralopithecus, discovered by Raymond Dart who believes that it 
is a representative of a prehuman stage of man's ancestry. Keith 
believes that it belongs to a geological age when man was already 
in existence and that it represents a branch of the phylum which 
gave us the gorilla and chimpanzee, it being the most nearly 
human of the three 

Read down — earliest epoch at top. 

the field of vision. Release of the hands from locomotor func- 
tions makes hand-feeding possible, but does not make it neces- 

The tarsioids* were the first hand-feeders. The hand-feed- 
ing habit is closely associated not only with snout reduction but 

* Tarsioid (like Tarsus), a small primate living in the East Indies and the 
Malay Peninsula. It is characterized by the frontal position of the eyes and 
the enormously elongated tarsal bones forming the arch of the foot. 

Continued on 
opposite page 

First order 

Flesh-eating- mammals 

Hoofed mammals 

Gnawing mammals 

Insect-eating mammals 

Fiving mammals 

Hairless marine mammals 

Water mammals 

Toothless mammals 

(kangaroo and opossum) 


(duckbill and echidna of 



From two Greek words 

meta. between, and 

thcria, the beasts 


(nourish young within the uterus 

by means of placenta) 





Animals with 

a spinal column 

Animals without 
a spinal column 

Multicellular animals 



Somewhere man branched off from the tree. He is distinguished from the other 
primates in having a nose with prominent bridge and tip, median furrow in upper lip, 
outrolled lips showing mucous membrane, a chin, non-opposable great toe, relatively 
large brain, relatively hairless body, and unlimited habitat. According to Sir Arthur 
Keith man shares 98 characters with the chimpanzee, 87 with the gorilla, 56 with 
the orang-utan, 84 with the gibbon, 60 with the New World monkeys, and 53 
with the Old World monkevs. 


(about the same life span and 

weight as man ; limb proportions 

more like those of man) 

(bulky and powerful: relatively 
short legs; long arms and hands: 
opposable great toe; has one off- 
spring at birth) 


(smallest and most agile of the 
anthropoids; prehensil feet; ex- 
traordinarily long arms; drinks 
water by dipping with hand) 



tail-; lives in 


(completely aboreal : 
vegetarian as well as 

carnivorous ; some 
have prehensile tail) 


(three premolars; broad^nosed) 

(eyes directed forward) 

(lives mostly on the ground; foot 
not unlike the human foot; arm 
segments approaching human 

(thumb well developed; cheek 
pouches; one species has no tail) 

(thumb is vestigial) 


(no tail ; no 

cheek pouches ; 

arms longer 

than legs) 


(hairless patches on 

posterior parts; 
tail never prehensile) 



(same dental formula as man) 


(eyes set in a bony ring 

and directed outward) 



(eyes directed forward; tear 

ducts within the orbits ; relatively 

large and complex brains) 

Continued from preceding page 


First Order 



also with the forward look of the eyes, which brings about 
stereoscopic vision. The suborder Tarsioidea was already differ- 
entiated into American and European groups as early as the 
Eocene of the Tertiary epoch. From one of these arboreal 
Tertiary tarsioids, the Anthropoidea, including man, have 

The oldest fossil remains of a catarrhinej monkey (Parapi- 
thecus) have been found in Lower Oligocene deposits of Egypt. 
Parapithecus is derived from an Eocene tarsioid. This small 
primitive Old World monkey stands very close to, if not in, the 
line of ascent leading to the great apes and man. It is a member 
of the family Cercopithecidae and has exactly the same dental 
formula as man. 

The Lower Oligocene of the Egyptian Faiyum has also 
yielded the remains of an anthropoid ape called Propliopithecus 
which Dr. William King Gregory of the American Museum of 
Natural History believes was derived from a primitive general- 
ized type of catarrhine monkey like Parapithecus. The adult 
Propliopithecus was small, not much larger than a newborn 
human child. 

As we ascend in the geological scale we come to later fossil 
forms. A probable descendant of Propliopithecus has been 
found in Pliopithecus from the Lower Pliocene epoch of Ger- 
many. Pliopithecus is almost a full-fledged gibbon. 

An ancestor of the orang has almost certainly been found in 
Palaeosimia from the deposits of the Middle Miocene epoch in 
India. Some species of Miocene Dryopithecus apparently led 
to the chimpanzee and gorilla. Sivapithecus indicus, from the 
Upper Miocene epoch of India, is regarded on good authority 
as an early offshoot between the Palaeosimia-orang group and 
the Dryopithecus-man group. 

Another fossil ape deserving of more than passing attention 
was discovered in 1924 by Raymond Dart in a limestone quarry 
at Buxton, near Taungs, Bechuanaland, South Africa. The por- 
tions found included cranium and lower jaw. The teeth corre- 
spond in number and arrangement to those of a six-year-old child 
Dart has created for it a new genus and species, Australopi- 

t Catarrhine, nostrils separated by a narrow septum and directed downward. 


thecus africanus. He believes that in it we have a representative 
of a prehuman stage of man's ancestry. Keith would agree 
with him if the fossil had come from a Miocene deposit; but he 
believes that it belongs to a geological age when man was al- 
ready in existence, and that all the evidence bearing on Austral- 
opithecus is best explained by supposing it to have sprung as a 
branch of the phylum which gave us the gorilla and chimpanzee, 
Australopithecus being the most nearly human of the three. 

Ancestral forms of the great apes and man increased in size 
from one geologic era to the next. With this increase in size it 
became increasingly difficult to maintain the arboreal mode of 
life. They had gained from the arboreal habit erect posture 
with all that it implies and safety from enemies. There re- 
mained little else to gain and much to lose; so by degrees arbo- 
real life was abandoned. This step might have been taken by 
man's ancestors as early as the Miocene epoch. It was a momen- 
tous step, the first step toward man's conquest of his environ- 
ment and hence of the earth. Had he been content with tree 
life, he never would have built up that fabric which is the result 
of cultural evolution. 

Man's arboreal ancestor had been a brachiating* animal, 
since the erect posture, when sitting, requires this means of loco- 
motion for its development. His arms were not excessively 
long and his legs were longer and stronger than those of his 
anthropoid contemporaries. With erect biped gait there came 
certain bodily changes, especially in the pelvic girdle, the muscles 
of the legs, and above all in the foot. The acquiring of the 
ground-dwelling habit necessitated the transformation of the 
foot from a prehensile to a supporting organ. Relatively little 
change took place in the arms and hands. The complete free- 
dom of the hand brought about the further opposability of the 
thumb, which became long enough to be opposed to any of the 
other digits and increasingly useful on that account. The free- 
dom of the hand led to tool-using and to tool-producing habits 
and opened the door to cultural evolution. 

* Brachiating, swinging by the arms from tree-branch to tree-branch. 



BY fossil man is meant man of the Old Stone Age. Our 
knowledge of the physical types of the races that lived 
during that long and remote period is confined to the skeletal 
remains which have thus far been unearthed. These are rela- 
tively few, but the numbers are gradually increasing so that we 
are now in a better position than ever before to interpret the 
meaning of the records as they unfold. We should not, how- 
ever, lose sight of the fact that more remains of fossil man still 

lie buried beneath the 
earth's surface than have 
hitherto been discovered. 

The Java Man 



The most primitive 
type of skeletal remains 
that could be placed in 
the category of fossil 
man is Pithecanthropus 
erectus, found by Eugene 
Dubois of Holland near 
Trinil, Java, in 1891 and 
1892. These include a 
cranial cap, thigh bone, 
and teeth. Dubois be- 
lieves the deposit in 
which they were found to 
be of the Pliocene epoch. 
Others would refer them 


As restored by McGregor 



to the Lower Pleistocene epoch. The cranial cap is low and nar- 
row with a relatively small cranial capacity. The femur found 
nearby and at the same level is relatively long and straight, ap- 
proaching the human type more nearly than does the cranium. 
The fragment of a lower jaw with the first premolar and the 
socket for the canine immediately in front was found in 1890 at 
Kedung Brubus, a distance of some twenty-five miles southeast 
of Trinil, but in a deposit the same age as that which yielded 
Pithecanthropus at Trinil. 

This mandibular fragment, taken in connection with the left 
anterior lower premolar found at Trinil after the return of 
Dubois from Java, throws important light on the general facial 
aspect of the Java man. The two pieces belong to two indi- 
viduals of the same genus since both were associated with the 
Kendeng or Trinil {Pithecanthropus) fauna and have under- 
gone the same degree of fossilization. 

The Trinil premolar is small and not unlike a human lower 
premolar. The tip of the root is bifurcated, as sometimes occurs 
in man; moreover these two branches of the root — buccal* and 
lingualt — are directly opposite. In apes these branches are 
obliquely placed. A contact facet indicates the close proximity 
of the premolar to the lower canine; its occlusion with the upper 
canine and upper first premolar is marked by facets of wear. 
Everything points to a small hominoid upper canine. Therefore 
Pithecanthropus with its small canines and premolars must have 
possessed a short hominoid type of dental arch. 

The fragment of a lower jaw from Kedung Brubus con- 
forms in every way to the kind of lower jaw that must have held 
the Trinil premolar. It is from the right side of the chin region, 
a triangular piece bordering immediately on the symphysis. § 
The root of the first premolar is almost completely preserved, 
also the back half of the socket of the canine with its root point 
and part of the anterior plane of the alveolus of the second 
premolar. The piece is large enough to give a fairly accurate 
idea of the shape and structure of the Java man's chin, which is 
apparently little if any more receding than the chin of Neander- 
tal man. 

* Buccal, toward the cheek. 

f Lingual, toward the tongue. 

§ Symphysis, the middle of the front of the lower jaw. 




Java Man 

Pithecanthropus erectus 

pith" e-kan-thro'pus e-rek' tus 
(From the Greek, pitbecos, ape 
+ anthropos, man; erectus, erect 

First skeletal remains found near 
Trinil, Java, in 1891 and 1892. 

Peking Man 

Sinanthropus pekinensis 
sln-an' thro-pus pe" kin-en' sis 

Tooth found among a collection of 
"dragon's teeth" purchased of a 
druggist in Peking, China, in 1903. 
In the cavern at Chou Kou Tien near 
Peking other teeth were found, 1923- 
27; two crania in 1929 and 1930 

Piltdown Man 

Eoanthropus dawsoni 

e" o-an'thro-pus da' son-I 
(From the Greek eos, dawn + 
anthropos, man; dawsoni — of 
Charles Dawson, discoverer 

First discoveries made in a gravel pit 
at Piltdown Common near Fletching, 
Sussex, England, 1911-1913 


Homo heidelbergensis 

ho' mo hi"-del-berg-en' sis 

In 1907 was found a lower jaw in a 
sandpit near Mauer, 634 miles south- 
east of Heidelberg, Germany 

Taubach Man 

Human fossils found in the Kampfe 
quarry, Ehringsdorf, Germany, 1912, 
1916, and 1922, and from the Fischer 
quarry, Ehringsdorf, in 1925 

Krapina Man 

Fossils excavated from 1895 to 1905 
from a rock shelter at Krapina near 
Agram, Jugoslavia 


Homo neandertalensis 
ho' mo na-an" der-tal-en' sis 

The first fossil skeletal remains was a 
skull found in 1848 at Forbes quarry, 
Gibraltar, but not recognized as such 
until 1857. Part of a fossil skeleton 
was found in Neander Valley near 
Dusseldorf, Germany, in 1857. Other 
discoveries since in France, Belgium, 
Galilee, and Rhodesia 



Homo sapiens 
ho' mo sa'pi-enz 

The first skeleton of the Cro-Magnon 
race ever found was unearthed in 
1823 from the cave of Paviland in 
southwest Wales but not recognized 
as such until parts of five skeletons 
were unearthed in 1868 from the rock 
shelter of Cro-Magnon, France 



Dubois believes the deposit in which they 
were found to be of the Pliocene age; 
others would refer them to the Lower 

In comparison with body weight the brain 
was twice as large as in anthropoid apes and 
half as large as in present-day man. He 
could walk erect but no doubt continued to 
be an agile climber 

The fossil remains found at a depth of 
about 110 ft. in cave deposits and in 
association with an extinct fauna belong- 
ing to an early phase of the Pleistocene 

Cranial walls very thick, the cranial cavity 
surprisingly small. The brain narrower and 
somewhat loftier than in the Java man. A 
primitive generalized type combining cer- 
tain features found in Java man and 
Piltdown man 

Keith believes that the Java man branched 
off from the main human stem in Mio- 
cene time and that both the Peking and 
Piltdown man branched off in the early 
Pliocene and that in the Piltdown man we 
have the early Pleistocene ancestor of 
modern races of mankind 

Cranial walls exceedingly thick like Peking 
man's; in other respects approaches more 
nearly to the modern type. The lower jaw 
and the canine tooth more ape-like than 
those of the Peking man 

The Mauer sands in which the fossil was 
found at a depth of 82 ft. belong to the 
early Pleistocene epoch 

The jaw is massive and of a primitive chinless 
type. The teeth are distinctly human, both 
in appearance and size 

The principal relic-bearing deposits belong 
to the third interglacial (Riss-Wiirm) 

Jaws primitive in type with pronounced for- 
ward projection. Represent a fairly primi- 
tive stage in the evolution of the Neandertal 

Judging from physical characters, from the 
artifacts and fossil fauna, Krapina man 
was the contemporary of Ehringsdorf- 
Taubach man 

Lived in the last interglacial and the early 
part of the last glacial epoch 

In physical makeup he retained many 
primitive characteristics due to his branch- 
ing from the main human stem as early as 
the Pliocene epoch 

Lived during the Aurignacian, Solutrean, 
and Magdalenian epochs in western 
Europe and in parts of Africa and Asia 

Prominent chin and forehead, tall stature and 
relatively long legs. Differs in no marked 
degree from the succeeding Mesolithic and 
Neolithic races, which in turn bear a close 
resemblance to modern races 



Judging from the endocranial* cast the brain was in keeping 
with the cranial and facial characters. The region of the right 
pterion is sufficiently well preserved to show the separation of 
the frontal and temporal lobes as in man. There is evidence also 
that the lower frontal region of the brain resembles the same 
region in man more than in the apes. Broca's convolution, the 
region in man of the motor control of speech organs, is de- 
veloped to a certain degree. Another notable feature of the 
endocranial cast and one that is to be correlated with the de- 
velopment in the region of Broca's convolution, is the expansion 
of the middle temporal convolution, which is the auditory speech 
center in man. The combination of these two characters in the 
Java man leaves us to infer he had a certain familiarity with both 
the motor and the auditory phases of articulate speech. The 
cranial capacity is estimated at 900 cubic centimeters (about 
fifty-five cubic inches). 

In comparison with body weight, the brain of the Java man 
was twice as large as in anthropoid apes and one-half as large as 
in present-day man. Broca's convolution and the middle tem- 
poral convolution are developed to a degree beyond that seen 
in the great apes and sufficient to premise the beginnings of a 
system of articulate speech. The character and size of the teeth 
and the fragment of lower jaw furnish evidence of a pronounced 
shortening of the muzzle over that exhibited by the anthropoids. 
In comparing the characters of the femur in their relation to 
those of the skull, it is apparent that the straightening of the 
femur and its adaptation to erect posture anticipated the adjust- 
ment of the skull to that posture. The Java man could walk 
erect, but no doubt continued to be an agile climber. A careful 
study of the thighbone led Dubois to the conclusion that the 
pelvis of the Java man was intermediate in type between that of 
present day man and that of the gibbon or the chimpanzee. 

The remains of the Java man are in the Teyler Museum at 
Haarlem, Holland. 

The Peking Man (Sinanthropus pekinensis) 
In 1903 M. Schlosser of Munich received a collection of 
"dragon's bones" that had been purchased of a druggist in 

* Endocranial, inside the cranium. 


Peking, China. In it he found a "left upper third molar, either 
of a man or of a hitherto unknown anthropoid ape." The 
locality and the age of the deposit in which it was found are 
still unknown. Schlosser believed the tooth from Peking to be 
the oldest human tooth known at that time and one that showed 
a closer resemblance to the apes than any other known fossil. 


View of right side 

{After Davidson Black) 

He went so far as to recommend that investigators enjoying the 
privilege of excavating in China should search for the remains 
of a new fossil anthropoid, a Tertiary man, or an early Pleisto- 
cene man. 

Schlosser's pioneer work did not begin to bear fruit until 
1921, when J. G. Andersson, the Swedish geologist, discovered 
the fossil-bearing deposits in the cavern at Chou Kou Tien, near 
Peking. From 1923 to 1926 two human teeth were recovered 
from material which had been taken from this cavern. In 1927 
another human tooth was found. The next find (1928) was the 
horizontal portion of the right half of an adult human lower 
jaw with three molar teeth in situ, also other teeth. 

In December, 1929, W. C. Pei, a Chinese scientist, dis- 
covered a human cranium, complete except for the face and a por- 



tion of the base. The skull is that of a young adult, probably 
male, and represents a primitive generalized type combining cer- 
tain characters found in the Java man and in the Piltdown man. 
The cranial walls are very thick, the cranial cavity surprisingly 
small. The brain was narrower and somewhat loftier than in the 
Java man. According to G. Elliot Smith, "The brain case of 
Sinanthropus (the Peking man) reveals many features which are 
unknown either in the Ape-man of Java or in the Piltdown skull, 
and throws a great deal of light upon the characters of the com- 
mon ancestor of the human family, from which all these genera 

' v"/W. 

& "' % 


View of top 
{After Davidson Black) 

had been derived." For example, the mastoid region of the tem- 
poral bone recalls the condition in the newborn child and in the 
adult anthropoid apes. 

The upper portion of a second cranium was pieced together 
in July, 1930, from material taken from the cavern the previous 
autumn. It also is that of a young adult, probably female. 
The human skeletal material from Chou Kou Tien all belongs 



to an exceedingly primitive generalized type with some char- 
acters reminiscent of man's simian ancestry and others fore- 
shadowing the coming of Homo sapiens. The fossil remains 
of the Peking man were found at a depth of about 110 feet 
(33.5 meters) in cave deposits and in association with an extinct 
fauna belonging to an early phase of the Pleistocene epoch. 

The Piltdown Man (Eoanthropus dawsoni) 

From 1911 to 1913, important discoveries were made by 
Charles Dawson, a local lawyer, Father Teilhard de Chardin, 
of Paris, and others in a gravel pit at Piltdown Common near 
Fletching (Sussex), England. The finds included part of a 
human cranium, part of a lower jaw with two molar teeth in 
situ, a canine, and nasal bones. In the same deposit were found 
remains of fossil animals and crudely chipped flint tools. In 
1915 fragments of an- 
other cranium and a 
lower molar were found 
at another site about two 
miles (three kilometers) 
distant from Piltdown. 
Scientists are agreed that 
the two individuals rep- 
resented by these two 
finds were contemporary 
and belonged to the same 

The cranial walls of 
the man of Piltdown 
were exceedingly thick, 
resembling in this respect 
those of the man of Pek- 
ing. In other respects 
the cranium approaches 
more nearly to the mod- 
ern type. On the other 
hand, the lower jaw and Fig 7 _skull of eoanthropus dawsoni 

the Canine tOOth are ,.,,, V&s sectored by McGregor 


more apelike than is the cranium of the Peking man. Geo- 
logically the Piltdown and the Peking men were approximately 
contemporary. Both were little, if any, more recent than 
the Ape-man of Java. Keith believes that the latter branched 
off from the main human stem in Miocene time, and that both 
the Peking man and the Piltdown man branched off in the early 
Pliocene age; he believes further that in the ancient Piltdown 
man of Sussex we have the early Pleistocene ancestor of the 
modern races of mankind. 

The specimens from Piltdown are in the Natural History 
Museum, South Kensington, London. 

The Heidelberg Man {Homo heidelbergensis) 

In 1907, Otto Schoetensack found a human lower jaw at a 
depth of about eighty-two feet (twenty-five meters) in a sand pit 
near Mauer, about six and a quarter miles (ten kilometers) 
southeast of Heidelberg. The Mauer sands belong to the early 
Pleistocene age. The same geological level from which the 
lower jaw came has yielded other fossil faunal remains including 
rhinoceros, elephant, bison, etc. The human lower jaw was 
intact, but a limestone pebble was so firmly cemented to the left 
half of the jaw, covering the premolars and first two molars, 
that the crowns of all four teeth stuck to the pebble when the 
latter was removed. 

The jaw is massive and of a primitive chinless type. The 
teeth are distinctly human, not only in their general appearance, 
but also in point of size; this is as true of the canines as of the 
other teeth. The teeth are worn enough to prove that the indi- 
vidual, obviously a male, had reached the fully adult stage. 

The Mauer jaw belonged to a species of early man to which 
Schoetensack has given the name Homo heidelbergensis. The 
Heidelberg jaw is preserved in the Geological-Paleontological 
Institute, Heidelberg. 

The Ehringsdorf-Taubach Man 

In the Ilm Valley, near Weimar, Germany, travertine* de- 
posits have been exploited for years at Taubach and Ehringsdorf . 

* Travertine, a white, eakiurn; carbonate,/ varying from soft and chalk-like to 
hard and semi-crystalline, deposited by streams lioi^ing lime in solution. 


The principal relic-bearing horizon is in the lower travertine 
which belongs to the third interglacial (Riss-Wiirm) epoch. In it 
have been found not only fossil human and animal remains, but 
also flint implements. A human lower jaw was found in the 
Kampfe quarry at Ehringsdorf two years before the outbreak 
of the World War; it is that of an adult female, primitive in 
type and with pronounced forward projection of the jaws. The 
third molars are relatively small, proving that the tendency of 
the third molars to disappear is of ancient date. All the teeth 
are intact and in place save the two right incisors. 

In 1916 a second lower jaw, that of a child some ten years 
old, was found in the same quarry at Ehringsdorf and at the 
same level,, some eighty feet (twenty-five meters) north of the 
spot where the first lower jaw had been found. A few other 
parts of the child's skeleton were also recovered. Fortunately 
the ascending portion of one-half of the jaw was preserved; it 
resembles the Piltdown more than it' does the Heidelberg jaw. 
In 1922 a human femur was found in the same quarry and at the 
same level as the two lower jaws. 

In 1925 the upper portion of a human cranium was found 
in the Fischer quarry at Ehringsdorf. It came from the same 
level as the two lower jaws from the Kampfe quarry and is that 
of a young adult, probably female. On the frontal bone are marks 
left by a sharp, as well as a blunt, flint implement. The young 
woman apparently came to her end through foul play. The 
base of the cranium is missing; it might have been broken away 
immediately after the tragedy in order to remove the brain of 
the victim. This much is surmised by Professor Franz Weiden- 
reich in his description of the specimen. 

The cranial cap is of the type one might have anticipated 
after the discovery of the two lower jaws. All three rep- 
resent a fairly primitive stage in the evolution of the Nean- 
dertal group. They are preserved in the City Museum at 

The Krapina Man 

From 1895 to 1905 Dr. K. Gorjanovic-Kramberger excavated 
a rock shelter at Krapina near Agram, Jugoslavia. He found 
several thousand pieces of bone, including human, and about one 


thousand artifacts,* mostly stone, but including a few of bone. 
The human bones comprised some five hundred pieces belonging 
to at least ten individuals. Many of these had been partially 
burned and some apparently split open. Judging from the 
physical character of the human remains, from the artifacts, as 
well as from the associated fossil fauna, Krapina man was the 
contemporary of Ehringsdorf-Taubach man. It is believed that 
a skull found in 1929 in a gravel pit on the estate of Saccopastore 
just outside the Porta Pia, Rome, is of the same age as Krapina 
and Ehringsdorf. It is preserved in the Anthropological Insti- 
tute of the University of Rome. The specimens from Krapina 
are at Agram. 

The NEANDERTALt Man {Homo neandertalensis) 
The Discoveries at Gibraltar 

In this discussion of fossil man it was thought best to begin 
with the oldest, most primitive types and lead gradually to the 
higher, less primitive, and later types rather than to follow the 
chronological order of the finds themselves. The first fossil 
skeletal remains of the type now known as Neandertal was the 
skull found at Forbes Quarry, Gibraltar, in 1848. It was, how- 
ever, not recognized as such until after the discovery of the 
Neandertal skeleton some ten years later. Both belong to 
the same race known as Homo neandertalensis. The Gibraltar 
skull is in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, 

Another specimen of the Neandertal race was unearthed 
at Gibraltar in 1926 by Miss Dorothy Garrod* from a rock 
shelter known as Devil's Tower, some thousand feet (350 
meters) distant from the Forbes Quarry site. The specimen is 
the skull of a five-year-old child. For one of his age, the jaws 
are massive and the teeth large. The receding chin is a typically 
neandertaloid character. The artifacts found with this child's 
skull are late Mousterian. 

* Artifact, a product of human workmanship, especially of aboriginal man. 

t The Germans no longer spell Neandertal with an "h" (Neanderthal) ; 
scientists from other countries should follow their example and thus avoid the 
danger of mispronouncing the last syllable. — Author's note. 

X Research Fellow, University of Cambridge. 

Figure 8 

Neandertal Race, Mousterian Epoch 


(After Sobotta) 



The Discoveries in Neander V alley 

Neandertal is an oft-repeated name in the literature of 
prehistory. It means Neander Valley, Neander being a small 
stream not far from Diisseldorf, Germany. In this valley is the 
cave of Feldhofen, and it was here that part of a fossil human 
skeleton was found in 1857. This discovery came in the full- 
ness of time as far as the immediate appreciation of its im- 
portance was concerned. Coincident with Schaaffhausen's first 
paper on the Neandertal skeleton was the memorable meeting 
of the Linnaean Society in London, at which both Darwin and 
Wallace presented their views on the origin of species. This 
was followed in 1859 by the appearance of Darwin's Origin of 
Species. There is little wonder that the discovery of this primi- 
tive human type should have attracted so much attention. In 
1864, it was christened Homo neandertalensis by W. King, and 
thus became the type specimen for that race. 

The Neandertal skeleton occupies the place of honor in the 
Provinzial Museum at Bonn, Germany. 

The Discoveries at Spy, Belgium 

Passing over a few minor discoveries of human skeletal re- 
mains which may be as old as the man of Neandertal, we come 
to the capital discovery made in 1886 of parts of two human 
skeletons of the Neandertal type. These were found by a 
group of three Belgians : Julien Fraipont, Max Lohest, and 
Marcel de Puydt, and are now in possession of the Lohest family 
at Liege. Because of the number and completeness of the bones 
recovered — crania as well as long bones — Spy has added much 
to our knowledge of the physical characters of the Neandertal 
man. The direct association of the skeletons with flint imple- 
ments, which was lacking at Neandertal, gave the first clue to 
the nature of Neandertal culture. 

The Discoveries at Le Moustier, France 

This culture was found to be in all respects like that found in 
1862-63 by Lartet* and Christy f in the rock shelter of 

* Edward Lartet (1801-1871), a French paleontologist and archeologist. 
t Henry Christy (1810-1865), an English ethnologist. 



Le Moustier (Dordogne), France." The culture from Le Mous- 
tier had been christened Mousterian by G. deMortillet* as early 
as 1869; that is why we preserve in prehistoric terminology the 
two names — Neandertal for the physical type and Mousterian 
for the cultural type created by the Neandertal race. 

Part of a Neandertal skeleton was later (1908) found in 
the rock shelter of Le Moustier, adding emphasis to the unity 
of the Neandertal race with Mousterian culture. The skele- 


Side view 

ton is that of a youth and is preserved in the Museum fiir 
Volkerkunde, Berlin. 

The Discoveries at La Chapelle-aux-Saints 

The most complete skull of the Neandertal race known to 
date is the one found in 1908 by J. and A. Bouyssonie and L. 
Bardon. Fortunately, the face bones and base of the skull were 
preserved almost intact (see Fig. 8 ) . Other parts of the skeleton 
were also recovered. Here again the human bones were asso- 
ciated with a Mousterian industry and fossil fauna similar to that 
from Spy and Le Moustier. The Cave of La Chapelle-aux-Saints 

*G. deMortillet (1821-1898), a French prehistorian. 



is in Correze some thirteen miles (twenty-two kilometers) south 
of Brive. The skeleton reposes in the Museum of Natural 
History, Paris. 

The Skeletons from La Ferrassie 

La Ferrassie is the name of a Mousterian rock shelter north 
of Le Bugue (Dordogne) , where from 1909 to 1912 parts of six 
skeletons of the Neandertal race were found by Peyrony of Les 
Eyzies. Four are of children, two of adults. They now belong 
in the Paris Museum of Natural History. 

The Discoveries at La Quina 

La Quina is the name of a Mousterian rock shelter in the val- 
ley of the Voultron, about two miles (three kilometers) north- 
east of Villebois-la-Valette (Charente), France. La Quina is 
even richer in Mousterian artifacts (stone and bone) than is 
La Ferrassie. Parts of several skeletons of the Neandertal type 
have been recovered, including an almost complete adult female 
skull (1911) and the cranium of an eight-year-old child (1915). 
The science of prehistory owes much to Dr. Henri Martin for the 

care with which he has 
carried on the excava- 
tions at La Quina. Most 
of the specimens from 
La Quina are in Dr. 
Martin's Laboratoire 
des Hautes Etudes at 
Le Peyrat, his home 
near La Quina. The 
human skeletal remains 
are in the Natural His- 
tory Museum, Paris. 

The Discoveries in 

We now pass to an- 
other continent, Africa. 
At Bone Cave, near 
Front view Broken Hill, in northern 





Rhodesia, parts of a remarkable fossil human skeleton were 
found in 1921. The principal piece is an almost complete adult 
cranium obviously male. 
The skull form is sub- 
neandertaloid; with exag- 
gerated brow ridges. The 
cranial capacity is small. 
The mastoid processes are 
small, approaching the 
anthropoid. The fora- 


Neandertal race. Mousterian 


Above, view from side; 

below, view from front 

men magnum* is situated farther 
forward than in the cranium from 
La Chapelle-aux-Saints, indicat- 
ing that the race of Broken 
Hill had succeeded in at- 
taining a more nearly erect 
posture than had the race 
of Neandertal. According 
to G. Elliot Smith and W. P. Pycraft, Rhodesian man stands at 
the parting of the ways between Neandertal man and modern 

man, their conclusions be- 
ing based largely on the 
character of the brain 
castf and the pelvis. The 
industry from Broken 
Hill is without definite 
character. Both the skel- 
etal and industrial re- 
mains are now in the Natural History Museum, 

The Discoveries in Galilee 


In the spring of 1925, Mr. F. Turville-Petre, excavating for 
the British School of Archaeology at Jerusalem, found a Nean- 
dertal skull in the cave known as Mugharet el Zuttiyeh (Cave 
of the Robbers). The site is in the valley of Wadi el Amud, 

* Foramen magnum, the opening into the skull through which the spinal cord 


t Brain cast, the model of the brain made by filling the cranium with plaster. 


some six miles (ten kilometers) northwest of Tiberias and near 
the shore of the Sea of Galilee. The skull was associated with 
typical Mousterian industry (scrapers, points, and occasional 
small hand-axes). The cave is on the north face of the gorge, 
high above the stream bed and faces the south. A layer of fallen 
rock separated the industry belonging to the Neolithic and later 
periods from that of the Paleolithic period. 

Skeletons from Wady-Mughara 

Two of the three caves in the Wady-Mughara, near Athlit, 
Palestine, have yielded more skeletons of the Neandertal race 
than has any other locality known to date. The discoveries were 
made by joint expeditions of the British School of Archaeology 
in Jerusalem and the American School of Prehistoric Research. 
In 1931 and 1932 nine skeletons were excavated from Mugharet 
es-Skhul (Cave of the Kids) by Theodore D. McCown of the 
American School. Miss Dorothy A. E. Garrod of the British 
School found one skeleton and a complete massive lower jaw in 
Mugharet et-Tabiin (Cave of the Oven). 

The finds in the Cave of the Kids represent a true Paleolithic 
cemetery laid out on the terrace under the overhanging walls of 
the cave. Five of the burials had the limbs flexed quite tightly. 
The skulls of the adults are large and thick-walled with prominent 
brow ridges. The skull content is relatively capacious for the 
Neandertal race. The facial and alveolar prognathism are both 
marked; but the chin is fairly well developed and the teeth are 
large. The limbs are long and massive. A well-defined forward 
convexity of the femur and retroversion of the tibial head suggest 
a stooping posture. 

In 1932 Miss Garrod discovered in the Cave of the Oven a 
virtually complete young adult female skeleton and a massive 
male lower jaw. The pronounced brow ridges and inter-orbital 
breadth of the female skull are reminiscent of both the skull from 
Galilee and those from the nearby Cave of the Kids. However, 
the vaulting of the frontal bone is less elevated than is that in the 
crania from the Cave of the Kids. The lower jaw of the female 
is relatively slender and there is a total absence of even the sug- 
gestion of a chin. On the other hand the massive male lower jaw 


from the same layer has the same form and dimensions as have 
the lower jaws from the Cave of the Kids. 

The artifacts associated with the skeletons from these two 
caves are of Lower Mousterian age. Sir Arthur Keith, who is 
taking part in the study of these skeletal remains, refers to them 
as u the most imposing specimens of fossil humanity" he has ever 
seen. In view of their relatively great age and the physical dif- 
ferences, which exist between them and the Neandertalians of 
western Europe, he has suggested for them some specific name, 
such as Paleoanthropus (or Homo) pales tinus, for example. 

The Java Cranium 

In 1931, Dr. W. F. F. Oppenoorth, the Dutch geologist, dis- 
covered human skeletal remains in a mid-Pleistocene deposit on 
the banks of the Solo river, Java, only about ten kilometers from 
the spot where Dubois found Pithecanthropus erectus in 1891. 
The cranium is almost complete with the exception of the basal 
portion and the face bones. It has been christened Homo solo- 
ensis and is of a higher type than is Sinanthropus pekinensis. 
According to Sir Arthur Keith, we thus have in that part of the 
Old World an evolutionary series as follows: (1) Pithecan- 
thropus, (2) Sinanthropus, (3) Homo soloensis and (4) the 
living primitive Australian. 


It will be seen from the foregoing that the records bearing 
on the physical characters of Neandertal man are much more 
complete than is the pre-Neandertal record. He lived in the 
last interglacial and the early part of the last glacial epoch. In 
his physical make-up, he retained many primitive characters due 
to his branching from the main human stem as early as the 
Pliocene epoch. His lowly estate physically is reflected in his 
kit of tools. Although a hunter, he never got so far as to rep- 
resent by means of carvings, engravings, or drawings in color 
the animals hunted. 


1. Abri des Merveilles 

2. Altamira 

3. Asturias 

4. Aurignac 

5. Auvernier 

6. Badegoule 

7. Bloksbjerg 

8. Brno 

9. Bruniquel 

10. Campigny 

11. Cap-Blanc 

12. Chalons-sur-Marne 

13. Chancelade 

14. Chatelperron 

15. Cave of Massat 

16. Cave of Paviland 

17. Chaffaud 

18. Chelles 

19. Combe-Capelle 

20. Ehringsdorf 

21. Fere-en-Tardenois 

22. Font-de-Gaume 

23. Gibraltar 

24. Glastonbury 

25. Grimaldi 

26. Gundestrup 

27. Hallstatt 

28. Holmegaard 

29. Klause 

30. Krapina 

31. La Chalosse 

32. La Chapelle-aux-Saints 

33. La Ferrassie 

34. La Gravette 

35. La Madeleine 

36. La Quifia 

37. La Tene 

38. Laugerie-Basse 

39. Laugerie-Haute 

40. Le Moustier 

41. Le Fourneau-du-Diable 

42. Le Roc 

43. Le Veyrier 

44. Les Eyzies 

45. Levallois-Perret 

46. Maglemose 

47. Mauer 

48. Mas d'Azil 

49. Meon Hill 

50. Mullerup 

51. Narbonne 

52. Neander Valley 

53. Obercassel 

54. Orange 

55. Piltdown 

56. Predmost 

57. Saccopastore 

58. Saint-Acheul 

59. Solutre 

60. Spy 

61. Svaerdborg 

62. Taubach 

63. Tuc d'Audoubert 

64. Valle 

65. Varilles 

66. Vinelz 




The Cro-Magnon Race 

The Neandertalians might have lived on indefinitely had 
it not been for contact with a race of superior culture and 
mentality. Other factors may have played a minor role in the 
shifting of the scene, which took place some time during the 
last glacial epoch (Wurm). The evidence bearing on the 
change consists of human skeletal remains quite different from 
those of Neandertal and in association with a culture far 
superior to the old, as we shall see. 

The First Cro-Magnon Discoveries 

The first skeletal remains of the new race came to light in 
1868, about a decade after the discovery at Neandertal. The 
site was the rock shelter of Cro-Magnon in the village of Les 
Eyzies (Dordogne), France. Parts of five skeletons were un- 
earthed, including the skull of an old man and that of a woman, 
associated with artifacts belonging to the Aurignacian epoch. 
The woman had apparently been killed by a blow on the 
forehead. The old man's thigh bone had been injured and had 
healed; he had also suffered from pyorrhea alveolaris as well as 
from bone cists, especially in the lower jaw. His height was 
somewhat greater than that of a modern Frenchman. Both 
skulls are of the Homo sapiens type; they are preserved in the 
Museum of Natural History, Paris. The term Cro-Magnon 
has come to be applied to the peoples that lived during the 
Upper Paleolithic period — the authors of the cultures known 
as Aurignacian, Solutrean, and Magdalenian. 

The Grimaldi Skeletons 

Since 1872 the caves of Grimaldi on the Italian frontier 
just east of Mentone have yielded a number of skeletons of the 




Cro-Magnon type. The skeletons of two children and two 

adults were found in the Grotte des Enfants, also a double burial 

containing the skeletons of a youth and a woman in close contact. 

The skeleton of an adult male of tall stature was found in 

Grotte des Enfants near Mentone. Cro-Magnon race 


the Cavillon Cave. It was richly decorated with perforated 
shells and teeth and accompanied by flint implements and a long 
pointed bone implement. 

Several skeletons, including a triple burial, were found in 
Banna Grande (grand cave). The triple burial consisted of 
the skeletons of an adult male, a young woman, and a youth 
about fifteen years old. They lay in a bed deeply tinged with 
red ocher and were covered by a coating of the same. The 
grave goods included an attractive necklace, various other orna- 
ments, flint implements, etc. Three burials have been reported 
from the Cave of Baousso da Torre. 

The skeletons of Grimaldi have been dispersed among a 
number of museums : one local, the Museum of Anthropology 
at Monaco, the Museum of Natural History, Paris, and the 
Catholic Institute, Paris. 

The Paviland Skeleton 

The first skeleton of the Cro-Magnon race ever found 
shared the same fate as the first skull of Neandertal type found 
at Gibraltar. It was unearthed in 1823 from the Cave of Pavi- 
land (Glamorganshire), in southwest Wales. The skeleton was 
thought by Buckland to be that of an ancient Briton of the 
Roman period. The bones were deeply stained by red ocher, 
as is so often the case with Cro-Magnon burials, and were 
dubbed the "Red Lady of Paviland," having been identified as 
female. After the discoveries at Cro-Magnon and Grimaldi, 
the Paviland skeleton was recognized for its true worth, espe- 
cially since the associated finds, including ornaments and im- 
plements, tallied with those from France and Italy. The 
British geologist, William Johnson Sollas, also found that the 
skeleton is that of a male. It is preserved in the University 
Museum at Oxford. 

The Finds at Predmost and Brno, Moravia 

The loess deposits of Moravia have yielded many well 
preserved skeletons of the Cro-Magnon race. This is espe- 
cially true of Predmost, near Prerau, and the region about Brno. 
The principal find at Predmost consisted of a mass burial sur- 



rounded by stones- and comprising fourteen complete skeletons 
besides portions of six others. In all cases the associated 


Cro-Magnon race. Aurignacian epoch 
(After Absolon) 

cultural remains belong to the Aurignacian epoch. The skele- 
tons are preserved in the Moravske Zemske Museum at Brno. 

Other Discoveries 

Combe-Capelle — This is the name of a rock shelter near 
Montf errand (Dordogne), France, where, in 1909, Hauser 
found a well preserved skeleton of the Cro-Magnon race associ- 
ated with Aurignacian industry. The skeleton is of a tall man, 
who had been buried full length as were most of the Grimaldi 
skeletons. It is now in the Museum fur Volkerkunde, Berlin. 

Solutre — Several skeletons of the Cro-Magnon race have 
been found at Solutre (Saone-et-Loire) , France. Some of these 
were associated with Aurignacian culture, some with Solutrean; 
still others might possibly represent intrusive burials. The 
author, directing the work of the American School of Prehis- 
toric Research, dug here in 1924 in co-operation with the 
French. We were so fortunate as to uncover several Cro- 
Magnon skeletons and at least one of later date. 

he Roc — Skeletal remains of the Cro-Magnon race, which 
can be classed as of Solutrean age, have been found at Laugerie* 
Haute and Badegoule (Dordogne), Klause (Bavaria), and 
especially at Le Roc (Charente), on the west coast of France. 


Here in 1923 Henri Martin found three skeletons represent- 
ing a burial under blocks of stones. 

Laugerie-Basse — In 1872 £lie Massenat found the skeleton 
of an adult male in Magdalenian deposits of the Laugerie-Basse 
rock shelter near Les Eyzies. It lay on the left side with arm 
and leg bones bent and about it were several perforated shells. 
The site has also yielded the skull of a child and isolated bones 
and teeth. 

Chancelade — The skeleton of an adult male, in association 
with Magdalenian industry, was found in the rock shelter of 
Raymonden at Chancelade (Dordogne) ; it is now in the Mu- 
seum at Perigueux. 

La Madeleine — The rock shelter of La Madeleine near Les 
Eyzies (Dordogne) is the type station for the Magdalenian 
epoch. It has yielded an incomplete skeleton of an adult and 
the skeleton of a child bedecked with quantities of shell 
beads, etc. 

Obercassel — A sepulture containing two well preserved skele- 
tons, associated with Magdalenian industry, was found in diluvial 
deposits at Obercassel, near Bonn, Germany, in 1914. The two 
skeletons — man and woman — were scarcely a yard apart and 
were protected by large flagstones of basalt. They are pre- 
served in the Anatomical Institute, Bonn. 

Various other sites have yielded human skeletal remains 
dating from the Magdalenian epoch. The skeleton found in 
the rock shelter of Cap-Blanc (Dordogne) is now in the Field 
Museum, Chicago. 


During the Aurignacian, Solutrean, and Magdalenian epochs 
there lived in western Europe and also in parts of Africa (Bos- 
kop), a more or less homogeneous population belonging to what 
is known as the race of Cro-Magnon. In contrast with the 
Neandertal race, the Cro-Magnons were characterized by 
prominent chin and forehead, tall stature, and relatively long 
leg bones. Both mentally and physically the Cro-Magnons may 
be classed with Homo sapiens. They differ in no marked de- 
gree from the succeeding Mesolithic and Neolithic races, which 
in their turn bear a close resemblance to modern races. 



Cultural Chronology 

Shakespeare was right when he said: "All the world's a 
stage." Whether or not the stage was made especially for 
man matters little. That he has come into possession of the 
stage is an established fact. Shakespeare was perhaps also 
right when he added: "and all the men and women merely play- 
ers." On this stage the great drama of human evolution has 
been and is being enacted. The drama has been a continuous 
performance, the life span of each actor being innnitesimally 
short in comparison with the length of the performance. Then 
again if all the men and women are merely players, it stands to 
reason that they could not well be onlookers, auditors, at the 
same time. The difficulty inherent in having to take part un- 
consciously in a drama without apparent beginning or end and 
at the same time in attempting to fathom its meaning accounts 
in a great measure for the fact that it took man so long a time 
to begin the scientific reconstruction of his own past. 

Man's first great achievement was to obtain possession of 
the stage. A^ter conquering the world he began by slow de- 
grees to lay bare its secrets. He learned to know its shape, 
size, and the nature of the elements of which it is composed. 
He even went much farther afield in locating other worlds and 
probing the secrets of the universe around him. He was both 
astronomer and geologist long before he became anthropologist 
or prehistorian. 

One hundred years ago man's ignorance of the Old Stone 
Age was about as dense as was that of Neandertal man concern- 
ing a future age of electricity. In every age it has been difficult 
for man to visualize a stage of civilization very different from 
that of which he is a part. \\ 



After heaping up knowledge in every field of learning, after 
developing one science after another, with the aid of this accumu- 
lated knowledge, especially in the fields of geology, geography, 
history, comparative anatomy, and sociology, he has finally and 
competently attacked the problem of his own origin and de- 

The layers of the earth's crust are like so many leaves of a 
book on which the story of the earth is recorded. The top- 
most layers are youngest, those deepest down are the oldest. 
The deeper layers form a sort of geologic mantle, those nearest 
the surface form a prehistoric mantle, which in turn is capped 
by a historic mantle. One can think of these mantles as being 
thickest where the records are continuous over the longest 
stretches of time. Viewed in this light, the prehistoric mantle 
is much thicker in some parts of the world than in others. The 
thickest parts of the prehistoric mantle are in the Old World. 
In the Dordogne, France, for example, practically every phase 
of prehistory is represented by the deposits which have accumu- 
lated in four rock shelters. 

Above the layers forming the prehistoric mantle come those 
which compose the historic mantle. As is the case with the 
geologic and prehistoric mantles, so likewise with the historic 
mantle; it is relatively thick in some parts of the world and very 
thin or non-existent in other parts. The time element repre- 
sented by these three mantles is immeasurably long for the 
geologic, relatively short for the prehistoric compared with the 
geologic, but immensely long in comparison with the historic. 

The birth of prehistory as a science may be said to have 
taken place when C. J. Thomsen ( 1788-1865), of Denmark, laid 
the foundation for a system of prehistoric chronology. With the 
co-operation of a number of Danish and Swedish scientists, in- 
cluding the geologist, Johann George Forchhammer (1794- 
1865), the zoologist, Sven Nilsson (1787-1883), the antiqua- 
rian, Jens Jacob Asmussen Worsaae (1821-1885), and others, 
Thomsen succeeded in establishing on a scientific basis a relative 
chronology for prehistoric time. Thomsen began to make use of 
this system in 1830, but he did not publish it until 1836. His re- 
searches gave confirmation beyond the shadow of a doubt to be- 
liefs which had been expressed by men of thought and vision even 


before the beginning of our era. Thomsen's classification pro- 
vided for a sequence of cultures representing three ages : Stone, 
Bronze, and Iron. His system, applied to the collections in the 
National Museum at Copenhagen, of which he was director, 
was soon accepted in Scandinavia and throughout the world. 

The evidence thus far gleaned points to the Old World as 
the stage on which the first acts of the human drama were 
played. Let us examine for a moment the stage. It was ample 
in size; the greater part of the land mass lies north of the 
equator and in the hemisphere which suffered least from the 
recurring advances of the ice during the Glacial period, thus 
leaving to man a more ample stage for the great drama of 
physical and cultural evolution than he would have had in the 
western hemisphere. Our story will, therefore, deal primarily 
with the prehistory of the Old World. 

There is every reason to assume that the cradle of the human 
race was not only somewhere in the Old World, but also north 
of the equator. Was it in that part now known as Europe? 
It is too early to answer this question definitely. We are, how- 
ever, in a better position to discuss the prehistory of Europe 
than that of any other section of the Old World, because more 
work has been done there than anywhere else. 

Prehistory is unthinkable without a chronology, but its 
chronology is of a sort to which the finer units of the time scale — 
such as days, months, and even years — are not applicable. Its 
chronology is measured by year units to be sure, but used in mass 
rather than singly; and when figures in terms of years are given, 
they must be considered as approximations — as is the case when 
dealing with the Ice age or with geologic time. This fact, how- 
ever, does not reflect on the validity of prehistoric chronology, 
or on its scientific value. 

Correlation of Ice Age and Prehistoric Chronology 
For years the general consensus of opinion was that the last 
phase of Mousterian culture was coincident with the advance 
of the Wiirm, or last, glaciation, and that the Upper Paleolithic 
age (Aurignacian, Solutrean, and Magdalenian) was coincident 
with a part of the maximum Wiirm glaciation and the major 
part of its retreat. Until very recently conservative prehis- 



torians attempted to compress practically all of the Lower Paleo- 
lithic age into the last interglacial epoch (Riss-Wurm). In 
1912 V. Commont of Amiens had come to the conclusion that at 
least an early phase of the Chellean (Pre-Chellean) should be 
placed in the next to the last (Mindel-Riss) interglacial. 

The recent progress in this direction is due largely to J. Reid 
Moir of Ipswich and the Abbe H. Breuil of Paris. The main 
points in Breuil's synchronism of European glaciations and 
European cultural epochs, slightly modified, may be tabulated 
as follows (the oldest epoch at the bottom and the latest at 
the top) : 

Glacial and 
Interglacial Stages 

Cultural Stages 




Final Magdalenian 

Wiirm II 

Lower Magdalenian 

Laufen Retreat 

Final Mousterian 

Wiirm I 

Levalloisian V 


Riss-Wurm Inter- 



Early Mousteiian 
Grimaldi phase 
Weimar phase 


Derived and worn 
specimens of 
earlier culture 


Upper Acheulian 
Middle Acheulian 
Lower Acheulian 

Levalloisian II 

Levalloisian I 

Micoquean Clactonian 


Derived and worn 
specimens of 
earlier cultures 



Early Base of 
Micoquean Clactonian 


Sub-Crag industry 

Eolithic of some 

The foregoing tabulation covers only the first great period 


of prehistory, the so-called Paleolithic, and the first two stages 
of the Mesolithic, viz., the Azilian and Tardenoisian. To com- 
plete the Mesolithic (also called Epi-Paleolithic) there are 
usually added the Maglemosean, the Shellheap culture, and the 
Campignian of some authors. Following the Mesolithic comes 
the Neolithic to complete the cycle of Stone Age cultures. 

The use of the term "Stone Age" should not leave it to be 
implied that stone was the only kind of raw material on which 
primitive man drew for his tools and weapons. Use was made 
of many other materials, such as wood, bone, horn, ivory, etc. 
Stone was the most durable of all these materials, so that speci- 
mens of man's handiwork in stone were more likely to persist. 
The fact is that throughout the Paleolithic period artifacts of 
stone far outnumber those of any other material. They form 
the best available data for dividing Paleolithic time into epochs. 
Not until the Neolithic period and the invention of pottery did 
any other medium dispute first place with stone in tracing the 
evolution of man's material culture. 

The Evidence of Human Evolution 

The evidence bearing on human evolution is of two kinds, 
cultural and physical — the remains of man's handiwork and the 
remains of his body. The latter are confined practically to his 
skeleton. Both cultural and physical evolution were very slow 
at first. Physical evolution has continued so to be; on the other 
hand, cultural evolution has gradually increased in rapidity until 
now we are accustomed to see revolutionary changes in a single 
generation. Cultural evolution, therefore, is a more delicate 
instrument with which to delimit the various successive stages 
into which prehistoric time may be divided. 

Chronology Based on Stratigraphy 

The chronology of prehistory is based on stratigraphy, on 
the superposition of relic-bearing deposits. This superposition 
may occur in valley and loess deposits, in the floor deposits of 
caves and rock shelters, and in prehistoric camp or dwelling 
sites wherever located. The stratigraphically determined data 
may be used to fix the dates of burials, hoards, and isolated finds. 

Among all the kinds of stone employed by Paleolithic man, 



flint played a dominant role. It had the advantage of being 
abundant, widely distributed and of a quality best fitted to the 
manufacture of tools and weapons. Flint belongs to the family 
of cryptocrystalline* quartzes; it has a semi-vitreous luster and 
a hardness greater than that of steel. It fractures readily 
through both percussion and pressure, and the nature of its frac- 
ture made it easily adaptable to primitive man's need of a cut- 
ting instrument. Moreover, it may be fractured through purely 
natural means and it was probably the use of these natural flakes 


L, Chellean horizon; 
Solutrean horizon: 

F, E, D, Acheulian horizons; C\ C, Mousterian horizons; A, 
B', lower part of recent loess; B, upper part of recent loess 

with sharp edges which first led man to produce similar flakes at 
will. The artificial flakes may be distinguished by their bulb 
of percussion. 

* Cryptocrystalline, a term applied to rocks when structure, though crystalline, 
is so fine that no distinct particles are recognizable, even under the microscope. 


Pre-Chellea.v i Implements are crude in workmanship. 
Distinctive types are lacking. 


(from Chelles, a 
town east of Paris 
on the Marne) 

Chellean culture is widespread over the Old World especially in 
middle latitudes and those nearer the equator. Hand-axes 
crudely chipped on both faces, pointed one end and rounded 
the other. Scrapers, points, spokeshaves chipped on one face 


(from Saint- 
Acheul, Somme, 

A refinement of Chellean culture. 

Hand-axes more deftly made. 

Smaller tools chipped on one face only. 


(from Le Moustier, 



Hand-axe persisted. 

Scraper and point not only persisted but became the dominant 


(from Aurignac, 

With the coming of a new race — Cro-Magnon — came a new kit 
of tools. While they made use of the old tools they produced 
the needle of bone or ivory, the dart thrower, and the harpoon 
of reindeer horn. Artists produced engraving and figures in 
relief and in the round. 

(from Solutre, 






Characterized by the laurel-leaf blade deftly chipped on 
both sides and reduced to a remarkable degree of thinness. 





Characterized by a small pointed willow-leaf implement 
with a single lateral notch at base. The first bone or 
ivory needle with an eye appeared. With the laurel leaf 
and willow leaf, paleolithic chipping of flints reached 
its culmination. 

(from La Made- 
leine near Les 
Eyzies, Dor- 
dogne, France) 

The laurel leaf and willow leaf did not carry over into this 
epoch. However, the graver persisted, one type — the parrot 
beak — is found only in this epoch. The close of this epoch 
saw the completed evolution of the harpoon of reindeer horn. 
Cave art reached its zenith in polychrome frescoes. 

The oldest epoch is at the top, and the latest at the bottom. 




Eolithic is the name that should be reserved for artifacts 
that can be referred definitely to the Tertiary epoch. The 
Paleolithic is practically co-extensive with the Pleistocene epoch 
and the Ice age. It has been subdivided into Pre-Chellean, 
Chellean, Acheulian, Mousterian, Aurignacian, Solutrean, and 
Magdalenian epochs. Recently the Abbe Breuil has added two 
new terms — the Clactonian, between the Chellean and Acheulian, 
and the Levalloisian, between the Acheulian and Mousterian. 
The foregoing table of chronology (page 45) showed the po- 
sition of each of these epochs in relation to the various phases 
of the Ice age. The epochs are also characterized by certain 
types of stone implements as regards both form and methods 
of manufacture. 

The Chellean Epoch 

Implements of Pre-Chellean age are crude in workmanship. 
Distinctive types are lacking. Not many sites which can with 
certainty be referred to this phase are known. Among them 
may be mentioned the Cromer forest bed in Norfolk, England; 
at Saint-Acheul (Somme), in northeast France, and perhaps at 
La Chalosse (Landes), in southwest France. On the other 
hand the Chellean industry is characterized by a type call'ed in 
French coup-de-poing, in English hand-ax, and in German 
Faustkeil. The oldest hand-axes are crudely chipped on both 
faces, pointed at one end and rounded at the other, the two 
faces meeting along a sinuous* margin. The rounded end or 
pollf is relatively thick and often retains some of the nodular 
crust when made of flint. Chellean culture is widespread over 
the Old World, especially in middle latitudes and in those 

* Sinuous, wavy. j 

t Poll, the end of a tool opposite the point or the blade. 




nearer the equator. In addition to the hand-ax one finds 
scrapers, points, spokeshaves, etc., chipped on one face only. 

The Chellean epoch received its name from the town of 
Chelles, which is east^of Paris on the Marne. The site is in a 
deposit of ancient sands and gravels forming a terrace in the 
valley. Chellean implements have been found in the basal 
gravels and sands of valley terraces in various parts of the Old 
World, including the Thames, the Somme, the Nile, and the 

The Acheulian Epoch 

Acheulian culture is simply a refinement of the Chellean. 
The hand-axes are more deftly made. The sinuosity of the 

margins is much less pronounced and the 
poll is not so thick. There is also an 
accompaniment of smaller tools chip- 
ped on one face only. Everything 
points to a very slow but consistent 
evolution of human culture in west- 
ern Europe throughout the Pre- 
Chellean, Chellean, and Acheulian 

The physical character of the 
races responsible for this Lower 
Paleolithic culture is revealed 
in such fragmentary remains 
as the lower jaw from near 
Heidelberg, the Piltdown 
remains and perhaps also 
those recently discovered 
at Chou Kou Tien, near 
Peking. The stratigra- 
phic position of Acheu- 
lian culture in geologic 
deposits is immediately 
above the Chellean, but 
in the ancient loess. Sev- 

Fig. 16-HAND-AX OF FLINT ^j AcheuIian hearth 

Found ^on^Xut YeVt SJSZ'Jg Lane ' levels have been found 



From the base of the ancient loess (see Fig. 15, horizon F) at Saint - 
Acheul (Somme). Acheulian epoch. Now in the Yale University collection 

2/3 actual size 

in the ancient loess of the same river terrace at Saint-Acheul 
(Somme), which gave its name to the epoch. 

The Mousterian Epoch 

The Mousterian epoch marks a continuation of the Lower 
Paleolithic culture, so much so that it might well be classed as 
the final epoch of the Lower Paleolithic period rather than be 
referred to as the Middle Paleolithic period. The hand-ax per- 
sisted and is found even in the upper levels of the Mousterian 
deposits. The scraper and point not only persisted, but also 
became the dominant Mousterian types. The Mousterian cul- 
ture likewise includes a few artifacts of bone. 

jThe _race which left t he^Mousterian cuitur-e-4s~tk e s o called 
Neandertal race A The Neandertal skeleton was found in 



1857. No artifacts were found with it. In 1864 it was chosen 
as the type specimen of a species of fossil man, to which King 
gave the name Homo neandertalensis. Five years later, 

De Mortillet chose 
Le Moustier (Dor- 
dogne) as the type 
station for. a cul- 
tural epoch, to 
which he gave the 
name Mousterian. 
Up to that time, 
no human skeleton 
had been found in 
association with its 
artifacts. Such a 
happy combina- 
tion, however, did 
come to light at 
Spy (Belgium) in 
1886, where two 
human skeletons 
of the Neandertal 
type were found in 
association with 
artifacts of the Mousterian type. But by that time it was too 
late to alter the appropriate terminology already in use. The 
race, therefore, remains Neandertal and its culture Mousterian. 


From the cave of La Combe (Dordogne). Mousterian epoch 
Now in the Yale University collection 

3/4 actual size 

The Aurignacian Epoch 

The most pronounced line of cleavage both as respects 
physical evolution and cultural evolution is that between the 
Mousterian or Middle Paleolithic and the Aurignacian — the 
initial stage of the upper Paleolithic. Up to this time, man's 
kit of tools was very simple indeed, consisting largely of ready- 
to-hand tools supplied by nature (such as the hammerstone and 
natural flake with cutting edge) and tools which could be made 
by chipping. These two classes of tools I have called primary 
and secondary respectively. With the coming of the new race, 
commonly referred to as the race of Cro-Magnon we find a new 


kit of tools. While the Cro-Magnons still made use of primary 
and secondary tools, they produced in addition a new set of tools, 


From the cave of La Combe (Dordogne). Mousterian epoch. 
Yale Museum collection 

3/4 actual size 

Now in the 

to which the term "tertiary" might well be given; such, for 
example, are the needle of bone or ivory, the dart thrower, the 
bone point, and the harpoon of reindeer horn. 


From the cave of La Combe (Dordogne). Aurignacian epoch. 
Museum collection 

2/3 actual size 

Now in the Yale 

There is also to be noted a marked evolution in the stone 
industry. Nuclei, or cores of flint, were prepared from 
which long blade-like flakes were struck. Out of these, gravers, 
scratchers, and knives were made. The gravers were employed 
not only in the cutting of bone, ivory, and reindeer horn, but 
also by the artist in the production of engravings and figures in 



relief and in the round. The Cro-Magnon artist also knew 
how to employ color in giving expression to his artistic impulses. 
If he was skillful with the graver he was likewise skillful with 


Aurignacian epoch. 2/3 actual size 
(After Brcuil) 

the crayon of ocher or manganese, as witness the drawings on 
the walls and ceilings of caves. Before the close of the Mag- 
dalenian epoch, he had also become adept in the blending of 
colors as seen in the remarkable polychrome frescoes at Alta- 
mira, Font-de-Gaume, and elsewhere. 

The Aurignacian epoch took its name from the cave near 
Aurignac (Haute-Garonne) , France, discovered in 1852 and 
explored by Eduard Lartet in 1861. 

The Solutrean Epoch 

Upper Paleolithic culture forms a more or less cohesive 
whole. The principal exception to this rule is represented in 
the lithic industry of the second epoch, known as the Solutrean. 


During the Solutrean epoch there appeared first the laurel-leaf 
blade deftly chipped on both faces to produce an implement 
about three times as long as its maximum breadth and every- 


From the Szeleta cave, Hungary. Solutrean epoch 
2/3 actual size 
(After Breuil) 

where reduced to a remarkable degree of thinness. The 
maximum breadth is always nearer to the less pointed of the 
two ends. The laurel leaf characterizes the lower Solutrean 
epoch, whereas the upper Solutrean epoch is characterized by a 
relatively small-pointed implement with a single lateral notch 
at the base. In some only one face is retouched, and in some 
both faces are retouched. This implement can be compared in 
shape to the willow leaf. With the Solutrean laurel leaf and 
willow leaf, Paleolithic chipping of flint reached its culmination. 
The Solutrean epoch was named for the prehistoric camp 
site at the village of Solutre, near Macon, France. The site was 



explored by Arcelin (1866) and Ducrost (1868). Many pre- 
historians have since excavated there. 

The Magdalenian Epoch 

The stone industry during the Magdalenian epoch offers very 
little that is new. The laurel leaf and willow leaf did not carry 

Type station of the Magdalenian epoch 

over into the Magdalenian. On the other hand, the graver, 
which had its origin in the Aurignacian epoch, persisted not 
only through the Solutrean epoch, but also through the Magda- 
lenian epoch. One type of graver — the parrot beak — is found 
only in the Magdalenian epoch. The microlithic industry 
which appeared in the Aurignacian epoch is to be found in both 
the Solutrean and the Magdalenian epochs. 

Interesting Achievements in Non-lithic Materials 

An industry in non-lithic materials came to the fore during 
the Aurignacian epoch and continued to be much in evidence 
until the end of the Magdalenian epoch. In the Aurignacian 
epoch there appeared the flat bone point with base cleft for haft- 


ing (see Fig. 20). With this there went a dart-thrower usually 
carved out of reindeer horn, a baton of reindeer horn, and a 


From the rock shelter of La Madeleine. See Fig. 23 

(After Peyrony) 

needle of bone or ivory. The first needle with an eye appeared 
in the upper Solutrean epoch. During the Magdalenian epoch, 
needles of fine workmanship were comparatively plentiful. 

Breuil has been able to distinguish six phases or levels in the 
Magdalenian deposits largely through a study of the non-lithic 
industry. The evolution of the javelin point is especially in- 
structive. The first phase is characterized by a heavy, thick- 
based lanceolate form made of reindeer horn; in the second 
phase the base becomes flattened; in the third the base is either 
conical or beveled and the shaft grooved, the bevel at first being 
single and later double; the fourth witnesses a lengthening of 
the grooves and the appearance of tubercles near the base. The 
javelin point with forked base appeared in the Pyrenees during 
the fourth phase, but not in Dordogne until the fifth phase; 
During the fourth phase there appear prototypes of the harpoon 
of reindeer horn, the evolution of which was completed during 
the fifth and sixth phases (Fig. 25), 

Cave Art 

The latest researches of Eugene Pittard of Geneva tend to 
prove that the first example of cave art to be discovered was 



not the engraving on bone from the cave of Chaffaud in Vienne, 
France, but an engraved baton of reindeer horn from the cavern 
at Le Veyrier, near Geneva (Haute-Savoie) . This baton was 
found by Francois Mayor in 1833 and reported the same year to 
the Societe de Physique et d'Histoire Naturelle, Geneva. The 
engraving is not an important work of art. It would be dif- 
ficult to determine the animal intended to be represented. 

Mayor also 
found some- 
thing which at 
first glance 
would seem 
to be a har- 
poon, but the 
point is at the 
wrong end. 
Instead of be- 
ing a harpoon 
shaft with 
barbs, the 
piece repre- 
sents a stem 
in bud. Thus, 
the first en- 
graved object 
and the first 
sculptured ob- 
ject dating 

from the cave-art era were both found at Le Veyrier — on French 
soil, to be sure, but by a Genevese. 

The significance of the discoveries at Le Veyrier and Chaf- 
faud was not understood at the time. Mlt was not until 1860 
with the discovery at the Cave of Massat (Ariege), in southern 
France, of the head of a bear engraved on a piece of reindeer 
horn that Lartet was able to fix the date of cave art. Then 
followed in quick succession similar discoveries by him at 
Bruniquel, near Montauban, France, and in the Vezere Valley, 
Dordogne, France. The examples of cave art discovered by 
Lartet, Christy, and others in their time were all portable objects 

Fig. 25- 

Magdalenian epoch 
1/2 actual size 


found in the floor deposits of caves and rock shelters. Lartet died 
in 1871 ignorant of the existence of Paleolithic mural art in the 
form of engravings, drawings, polychrome frescoes and relief 
figures. Eight years later Sautuola of Santander, Spain, dis- 
covered the great group of incomparable frescoes on the ceiling 
of the cavern of Altamira ; but the results of his epoch-making dis- 
covery were not understood until near the close of the century. 

Cave art made its appearance with the Aurignacian epoch 
and continued through to the end of the Magdalenian epoch. 
With the recent discoveries of Peyrony at Le Fourneau-du- 
Diable (Dordogne) and of Henri Martin at Le Roc (Charente) 
we now have indubitable proof of Solutrean art. 

The Abbe Breuil has made a special study of the evolution of 
tave art and recognizes at least four phases. The first phase 
is represented by figures in the round, rather deeply incised en- 
gravings, and drawings in outline. The figures are in absolute 
profile and practically devoid of detail. The incised figures of 
the second phase remain deep and broad, but the outlines are 
more life-like. All four of the legs are usually represented, 
sometimes the hoofs also as well as other details lacking in the 
first phase. Drawings in color of the second phase evince 
the first attempt at modeling by shading at certain points, but the 
figures continue to be monochrome. The engravings of the 
third phase are generally of small dimensions and admirable in 
execution. During the fourth phase engravings lose in im- 
portance. On the other hand, Paleolithic painting reached its 
zenith in this phase. The modeling is done with various shades 
produced by the mixing of yellow, red, and black. In the fres- 
coes and drawings in color, use was made of oxide of iron and 
of manganese. 

The cave artist became adept not only in his use of such 
media as stone, bone, horn, and ivory, but also in the use of 
clay. He has left outlines of animal figures in the clay of the 
cavern floors, done with the fingertips or with pointed sticks, 
and fortunately preserved to our time because of their sheltered 
positions. He also modeled in clay, the best examples of this 
sort being the clay bisons in the cavern of Tuc d'Audoubert 
(Ariege), in southern France. /T*he~cave~ artist's range of 
models included both the animate and inanimate, but was con- 


fined almost wholly to the fauna. Mammals (including man) 
largely monopolized his attention. Birds and fishes were not 
so largely represented; reptilian figures are rare and the same 
may be said of invertebrates. Plantlike forms are also rare. 
The inanimate world is represented by club-shaped and tent- 
shaped figures; by spirals, circles, chevrons, frets, volutes, wave 
ornaments, and alphabetiform signs, of which some at least were 
derived from animate objects through processes of conven- 

To the hunter, game animals would naturally loom large 
on the horizon; these occur much more frequently than any other 
kinds. The horse far outnumbers the hyena, as does the red 
deer the lion. Many of the animal figures are prayers for the 
increase of the herd. The cave artist not only had predilection 
for such species as the horse and reindeer, he also seems to have 
had a predilection for the female of the species. The hind is 
represented more often than the stag and the human female 
more often than the male. 

From Jutland, Denmark. Maglemosean epoch. Now in the Yale University collection 

2/3 actual size 



THE Mesolithic period is also known as the Epi-Paleolithic 
period and in some respects may be looked upon as the 
"Dark Ages" of the prehistoric era. That which made of the 
Paleolithic period what it was in Magdalenian times lost its 
hold for some reason and there seems to have been nothing 
quite so effective to take its place. A change or climate, no 
doubt, had at least something to do with the result; blood and 
a difference in the cultural background, if there were shifts in 
these respects, may also have had an effect. The art of the 
caveman disappeared along with that which had been its inspira- 
tion, and nothing of real consequence arose to take its place. 
Cultural evolution waited for a renaissance, which was destined 
to come with the domestication of animals and plants and the 
invention of pottery; this ushered in a period justly called the 
Neolithic which will be discussed in Chapter X. 

The Phases of the Period 

The Mesolithic period has been subdivided into a number 
of epochs, or perhaps phases would be a better term since they 
do not apply to a well defined sequence of cultures. In parts 
of central and western Europe the term Azilian is given to the 
Lower Mesolithic and Tardenoisian to the Upper Mesolithic. In 
northern Spain the term Asturian is applied to the Upper Meso- 
lithic. The Maglemosean of Denmark probably represents the 
earliest phase of the Mesolithic in that region. The final stages 
of the Mesolithic now include the Shell-heap and Campignian 
cultures previously assigned to the Neolithic period. 

The Azilian Phase in Western Europe 

The Mesolithic period takes the place of what was once sup- 
posed to be a hiatus. The first span to bridge the hiatus was 




erected by Eduard Piette ( 1827-1906), when he explored the sta- 
tion on the left bank of the Arise at Mas d'Azil, France. Work 
was begun there in 1887 and Piette was soon able to distinguish 
nine different culture levels. The first five were Paleolithic, the 
last three were Neolithic, while the sixth did not fit into either. 
To this level he gave the name Azilian. In this deposit bones of 
the stag were plentiful, while those of the reindeer were absent. 
The lithic material was nondescript — small blades of flint, small 

disk - shaped 




Azilian epoch; a and b from Mas d'Azil; c, from La Mouthe 
2/3 actual size 

pebbles which 
had served as 
chisels and par- 
ing knives. 
Last but not 
least were the 
flat harpoons 
of staghorn 
with perfo- 
rated base and 
the so-called 
painted peb- 
bles. By 1891 
Piette had 
found more 
than two hun- 
dred of these 

Since then 
many Azilian 
stations have 
been found in 
western Eu- 
rope, but no- 
where else 
have so many 
painted pebbles 
been found as 
at Mas d'Azil. 


The Tardenoisian Phase in Western Europe 

The chief difference between the Azilian and the Tarde- 
noisian cultures is the absence of painted pebbles in the latter. 
The microlith industry forms the dominant note throughout the 
Tardenoisian phase of the Mesolithic period. Many of the 
microliths fall into geometric types — triangles, trapeziums, cres- 
cents, etc. There is an abundance of scratchers, also small 
blades recalling in miniature certain Aurignacian types found at 
Chatelperron and La Gravette. Microliths were employed as an 
armature set longitudinally and bilaterally into bone points. 
Composite implements of this kind are also found in Magle- 
mosean stations. That there was an overlapping of Azilian 
and Tardenoisian cultures is proved by the finding in the cave 
of Valle, northern Spain, of both Azilian and Tardenoisian tools 
in the same layer. 

The Maglemosean Phase in Scandinavia 

Maglemosean culture developed in Scandinavia probably be- 
fore the close of the Tardenoisian phase. The two cultures 
have much in common, especially the composite implement made 
of bone with an armature of microliths. The geographic dis- 
tribution of the Maglemosean, however, is much more restricted 
than that of the Tardenoisian. The best-known Maglemosean 
stations are Mullerup in the Maglemose (great bog), Svaerd- 
borg, Holmegaard, and Bloksbjerg, all in Denmark. 

The Asturian Phase in Spain 

Asturian culture takes its name from the province of 
Asturias, Spain, where it was first recognized. It is probably a 
local and rather late phase of the Mesolithic and closely related 
to the Shell-heap phase. In fact, Asturian industry is found 
in kitchen middens composed largely of sea shells carried into 
the caves. The typical Asturian tool is the pick chipped to a 
crude point from an oval pebble. Tools of bone are few and 
of crude workmanship. The Asturian is younger than the 
Azilian, because when the two are found in a given site, 
the Asturian is invariably on top of the Azilian. 


The Shell-Heap Phase 

The Shell-Heap and Campignian cultures were formerly 
assigned to the Neolithic period. The Shell-heap sites are on 
and near the present shore lines. They are, as the name indi- 
cates, great masses of shells left over from the shellfish con- 
sumed by the people of that time. The stone implements found 
in the shell heaps include : ( 1 ) a triangular type with transverse 
edge and varying in size from an arrowhead to a hatchet, and 
(2) a pick. No polished stone implements are found. The 
pottery is crude with rounded or pointed bottom. Awls and 
chisels of stag antler occur, as do objects of bone. 

In all ages, food, shelter, and clothing have been man's prime 
needs. All are profoundly influenced by locality and climate. 
As far as the food supply is concerned, dwellers by the sea are 
dependent largely on shellfish; hence their kitchen middens are 
composed largely of shells. At a much earlier epoch (inter- 
glacial) the race which inhabited caves in the Alps at high eleva- 
tions was restricted almost wholly to the cave bear for food and 
its kitchen middens are composed largely of cave-bear bones. 
Before the end of the last glacial epoch, and the final disappear- 
ance of the mammoth from central Europe, a race of hunters 
living in the open near what is now Unter Wisternitz, Czecho- 
slovakia, were limited in their available food supply to the 
mammoth; we know this because of the predominance of bones 
of the woolly elephant in the kitchen middens left by them to 
be covered up and preserved by loess deposits. 

As it has been with food, so likewise with shelter and cloth- 
ing. We know less about these than about food. Articles of 
clothing being of a perishable nature are preserved only in rare 
cases, restricted chiefly to pile-village and peat-bog sites; and 
it is chiefly to these sites that we owe our knowledge of artificial 
shelters composed of perishable materials. 

The Campignian Phase in France 

The Campignian culture is named for the village site of 
Campigny (Seine-Inferieure) , France. The site consists of 
land habitations marked by hut pits. These were excavated in 


gravels, which in turn rested on the Chalk. The flint implements 
found at Campigny are similar to those from the shell heaps. 
The polishing of stone as a shaping process was still unknown. 

Read down. 


In Western Europe 


a-zil' i-an 

(from Mas d'Azil, 

Bones of stag plentiful; those of reindeer absent. Lithic material 
nondescript. Many flat harpoons of staghorn with perforated 
base and so-called painted pebbles, of which more than 200 
had been found in 1891. 

In Western Europe 


tar-de-nwoz 'i-an 

(From Fere-en- 

Tardenois, Aisne, 


Absence of painted pebbles. Microliths, in geometric shapes, 
dominant note. Also scratchers and small blades. Azilian and 
Tardenoisian cultures probably overlapped. Similar tools in 

In Scandinavia 
mag-le-mos 'e-an 
(from Maglemose, 

Developed before close of Tardenoisian phase. The two have 
much in common, especially composite implement of bone with 
armature of microliths. Maglemosean more restricted geo- 
graphically — chiefly to Denmark. 

In Spain 


as-tur 'i-an 

(from the Province of 

Asturias, Spain) 

Probably local and late phase of the Mesolithic and closely 

related to the shell-heap. 
Typical Asturian tool the pick chipped to a crude point from an 

oval pebble. Tools of bone few and crude. Asturian younger 

than Azilian. Invariably on top. 

On or Near Present 

Shore Lines 


(from masses of shells 

heaped on shore lines) 

Stone implements include triangular type varying in size from 
arrowhead to hatchet and pick. No polished stone implements. 
Crude pottery, awls, chisels of stag antler and some bone objects. 

In France 


cam-pin 'i-an 

(from Campigny, 


Land habitations marked by hut pits. Flint implements similar 
to Shell-heap implements. No polished stone, but pottery and 
milling stones found. Fossils of horse, ox, stag and oak and ash 
trees found. 

The presence of pottery and milling stones proves that the popu- 
lation no longer depended entirely on the chase. The fauna 
found at Campigny includes the horse, ox, and stag. From the 
charcoal it has been possible to determine two kinds of tree — 
the oak and the ash. 



Cultural evolution is continuous; its rate of progress has 
varied with environmental and racial changes. In the 
stream of cultural evolution there are rapids alternating with 
long stretches in which the current is barely perceptible. 
Through the ages the stream has widened and deepened largely 
through tributaries. Tables of chronology are simply charts 
helpful to the navigators who would explore this stream of 
human evolution. As has already been noted, the dividing line 
between the Mousterian and the Aurignacian epochs is marked 
by rapids in the stream. Equally marked are the rapids on the 
line dividing the Neolithic period from the pre-Neolithic periods. 
Until the Neolithic stage was reached, man had been a food 
gatherer. With the Neolithic he becomes a food producer. 
While not wholly giving up hunting and fishing, he is no longer 
solely dependent on these sources of food (as well as raiment) 
supply. New inventions and discoveries made it possible to con- 
trol the needed supply of raw materials, at the same time making 
possible profound changes in man's mode of life. 

The Factors Which Produced a Change from the 
Mesolithic Period 

The factors which changed so rapidly the whole aspect of 
civilization were the domestication of animals and plants and 
the invention of the ceramic and textile arts. It would be diffi- 
cult to determine which of these factors was the first to be con- 
trolled. The existence of any one of these factors calls so 
forcibly for all the others, the probability is that the develop- 
ment of all four fields was nearly simultaneous. In animal hus- 
bandry, plants are indispensable, and vice versa. Both these 
industries require storage vessels, which would be supplied 
through the development of the ceramic and textile arts. All 



four factors combined to encourage community life with all that 
it meant toward subsequent progress of civilization. 

Satisfying the Artistic Impulses 

Pottery and textiles furnished new and admirable media for 
satisfying the artistic impulses of the Neolithic races; in both 
the opportunity to cultivate art for art's sake had free course. 
During the Neolithic period, the chipping of flint was carried 



Man becomes a food producer as well as hunter and fisher. Do- 
mesticates animals and plants. Invents ceramic and textile 
arts. Flint chipping becomes a fine art. Stone tools and 
weapons polished for shaping and finishing. Flint mining 
becomes commercial. Transportation on water by means of 
dugouts. Pile villages built on lake shores, over swamp lands, 
and over streams — especially in Central Europe. Megalithic 
monuments erected. Neolithic culture may have begun in Persia 
at least 20,000 years ago — in Crete 14,000 years. 

First Epoch 

Characterized by two types of flint ax or hatchet — early type 
with pointed head, later with flat head — quadrangular in section. 

Second Epoch 

New type of flint ax with head square in section. Second epoch 
divided into four phases characterized by (1) simple dolmens; 
(2) many-chambered dolmens; (3) stone cists; (4) individual 

to the point of becoming a fine art; this is seen to best advan- 
tage in the flint poniards and knives of Egypt and Denmark, 
as well as in some of the beautifully chipped blades found in the 
New World. 

The polishing of stone tools and weapons as a shaping and 
finishing process appears for the first time during the Neolithic 
period; but this by no means superseded the processes of shap- 
ing and finishing by means of chipping; both persisted even after 
the use of metals had gained the ascendency. 

The Pile Villages 

Mining for flint on a commercial scale began in Neolithic 
times, as did also transportation on water by means of dugouts. 
With increased use of waterways there developed the custom of 
building habitations on piles near lake shores. Sites of this 




Remains of piles visible at low water 


left, a communal house; right, a private house. (The railings which guard the 
approach did not exist in the original) 



sort were found to offer better facilities for protection and 
sewage disposal. Pile villages were sometimes built on swampy 
lands and over streams. The pile-village mode of life was 

Courtesy of the British Museum 


1 and 2, early Neolithic; 3, late Neolithic; below, cross-sections 

1/4 actual size 

widely distributed over Europe during the latter part of the 
Neolithic period and persisted during the Age of Metals which 
followed. Switzerland, southern Germany, western Austria, 
northern Italy, and eastern France near the Swiss border have 
furnished the chief data bearing on pile villages. Several hun- 
dred pile-village sites have been discovered in Switzerland alone 
since the exceptional drought of 1853-54 brought the first one 
to light. The structures were quadrilateral and often grouped 
in villages of considerable size. 

The Megalithic Monuments 

Another sidelight on Neolithic civilization is furnished by 
the so-called Megalithic monuments, which are widely distributed 
over the Old World and particularly prevalent in France, the 
British Isles, and southern Scandinavia. These will be discussed 
at length in Chapter XIX. 

The Centers of Neolithic Culture 

If Neolithic civilization had but a single center, that center 
was probably not far from where the three continents come in 
contact. According to the Swedish prehistorian, Oscar Mon- 



telius (1843-1921), the Neolithic began in Persia (Susa) at 
least 20,000 years ago. The English archeologist and historian, 
Sir Arthur Evans (1851- ) finds the Neolithic at Knossos 

in Crete going back some 14,000 years. The estimates for the 
beginnings of the Neolithic in western Europe are much more 
modest. By an intensive study of Neolithic culture in a given 
region one can trace the successive steps in the cultural evolution 
of that region with a fair degree of accuracy. But the time scale 
and details of evolution vary from region to region. 

In Scandinavia if one places the Shell-Heap epoch in the 
Mesolithic period, there follow in succession two well denned 
epochs of the Neolithic period. The first is characterized by 
the presence of two types of flint ax or hatchet: an early type 

From a photopraph by Tschumi 




1, first or oldest type; 2-5, 8. and 11, second type; 6, 7, 9. 10, and 12. latest type 



with pointed poll and a later with flat poll, quadrangular in sec- 
tion. With the second epoch there appeared a new type of flint 
ax with poll almost or quite square in section (Fig. 30). There 
are also axes of stone other than flint, with perforation for haft- 
ing. This second epoch may be subdivided into four phases, 
characterized successively by (a) simple dolmens, (b) many- 
chambered dolmens, (c) stone cists, and (d) individual graves. 

A careful study of the Neolithic deposits in the pile villages 
of Lake Neuchatel has made it possible for Paul Vouga of 
Neuchatel to trace the cultural evolution of that region during 
the pile-village phase of the Neolithic period. He finds three 
relic-bearing deposits with alternating sterile deposits. Each 
relic-bearing deposit is characterized by a different type of stag- 
horn socket for hafting stone axes. The staghorn sockets of the 
lowest level are plain, those of the second level are provided with 
a shoulder, while in the third level a new type of socket with 
forked base appears (Fig. 31). 



IT is fortunate for man's happiness that he does not miss that 
of which he is ignorant. He lived in at least a fair degree 
of contentment on this earth for a million years, more or less, 
before he hit upon the idea of making use of metals. It is not 
strange, therefore, to find that it took him a considerable length 
of time after he had discovered metals and how to make use of 
them before he discarded to any appreciable extent the imple- 
ments and utensils of stone, which had meant so much to him up 
to that time. 

Conservatism is deeply ingrained in man's makeup, especially 
in his prehistoric and primitive stages. He had, to be sure, 
experienced some revolutionary changes from time to time in his 
culture complex, but the core of the complex continued to be 
stone. For the first time he was called upon to abandon the core 
and see his civilization crystalize about a new element, or rather 
group of elements, the metals. In the beginning, the properties 
of metals defied his understanding; those of stone did not. Why 
give up a certainty for an uncertainty. Thus it was that man 
continued to lean heavily upon his stone-age staff, while testing 
a new contrivance. 

The Most Revolutionary Step Ever Taken by Man 

The change from the Stone Age to the Age of Metals was 
the most revolutionary step ever taken by man. It meant the 
discovery of a new world so far as cultural advancement was 
concerned. And yet for a considerable lapse of time it did not 
involve any very sweeping changes in man's mode of life. He 
did not abandon his stone tools and utensils, but he did not make 
any further distinct advances along that line. In regions where 
he had lived in pile villages, he continued so to live. Where he 
was in the habit of constructing dolmens and other megalithic 



monuments he did not suddenly abandon their construction. The 
potter's art which had been developed in the Neolithic period 
continued to flourish, as did agriculture. The earlier modes of 
burial of the dead persisted with little change. Nevertheless, 
man had reached the parting of the ways and had wisely chosen 
the one which led to the dawn of history and to our time. 

The reduction of metals from their ores was probably an 
accidental discovery. Metals are especially prized for their 
ductility, fusibility, and tenacity; those which occur in the native 
state — copper, gold, iron, silver — were the first to attract man's 
attention. In its native state, copper is fairly abundant but not 
widely distributed. The Neolithic races made very little prog- 
ress toward an Age of Metals as long as they were dependent on 
the supply of native metals alone. The new era was not ushered 
in until the discovery of the art of extracting metals from their 
ores and of melting and casting them. When by chance a lump 
of copper carbonate, or of tinstone, was used in the circle of 
stones surrounding the hearth and had become embedded in its 
embers, the lump would almost certainly be reduced to metal. 
This would not long escape the attention of primitive man and 
its properties of toughness and malleability would soon be dis- 
closed. From camp fire to metallurgical furnace was a step 
which was soon taken : first a simple hole in the hearth and then 
the raising of the smelting cavity or hearth above ground and 
enclosing it within a low stone wall. In the case of copper and 
its alloys, resmelting is necessary after reduction. The prehis- 
toric metallurgist accomplished this by making a small copy in 
clay of the smelting cavity, piling fuel over it, and thus obtain- 
ing the molten metal. This clay copy is the prototype of our 
modern crucible. 

The first alloys of copper were accidental, because in many 
parts of the world oxidized copper ores are associated with ores 
of antimony, arsenic, nickel, silver, or tin in small amounts. 
Prehistoric man finally discovered that certain of these accidental 
alloys were better suited to his purpose than pure copper; when 
he discovered the virtues of an alloy of copper with about five 
to ten percent of tin, he had passed from an Age of Copper (also 
called Chalcolithic and Eneolithic) to the Bronze Age. 


Copper and Gold the Earliest Metals Used 

Copper was probably in use in Egypt as early as 5000 B.C. 
It was known in the Orient (Susa) some 4000 B.C. Bronze 
appeared in Egypt with the first dynasties but was rare prior to 
3000 B.C. For a long period, copper and gold were the only 
metals employed. Most of these early metal objects were orna- 
ments. Mines that were worked during this phase have been 
located in Sinai; the most noted of these is at Wady-Magarah. 
Copper mines of ancient date are also known in the Near East 
(including the Caucassus and Cyprus), Spain, and other parts 
of Europe. The idea of a transition Age of Copper was first 
developed in Ireland and Hungary, where objects of pure copper 
were found. Ireland is the richest of all countries in prehistoric 
objects of gold. The initial Age of Metals is well represented 
not only in Ireland and Hungary, but also in Bohemia, Saxony, 
Switzerland, and southern France. 

The Origins of the Terms Bronze, Copper, and Tin 

The origin of the term bronze is from the city of Brun- 
dusium (Brindisi), Italy, where according to Pliny highly es- 
teemed mirrors of bronze were made. The word for copper 
in most European tongues is derived from the epithet the 
Romans gave to Cyprus : aes Cyprium. In Cyprus, the Age of 
Copper is very ancient. Commerce in Cyprian copper ingots 
throughout the Mediterranean basin is well attested. Cyprian 
types of copper objects are characteristic, a good example being 
the Cypriote poniard with long recurved tongue. 

Whether bronze had independent origins or whether its use 
spread from a single center does not at present admit of a defi- 
nite answer. Its origin is undoubtedly linked with some locality 
or localities where tin ores occur. These are found in the Iberian 
peninsula, Cornwall and Devon in England, Erzgebirge (be- 
tween Bohemia and Saxony), Italy, central and western France, 
Persia, China, Malacca, Tonkin, and Burma. 

The mines of Khorasan were mentioned by the Greek geog- 
rapher, Strabo; those of the Iberian peninsula by Ezekiel (chap, 
xxvii, verse 12). The Greek philosopher Posidonius is cited 
by both Strabo and Diodorus of Siculus as saying that tin was 

Courtesy of the Osnabruck Museum 


Bronze Age. 1/2 actual size 



found in Spain, Lusitania, and the Cassiterides. Some 450 B.C. 
Herodotus noted that navigators went to seek for tin in the 
Cassiterides west of Europe, but he was uncertain as to the 
exact location of these islands. During the Roman domination, 
the mines of Cornwall furnished tin to the Mediterranean 

The Four Epochs of the Bronze Age 

The four epochs of the Bronze Age and their characters 
are : 

Epoch I (including the Chalcolithic), 2500-1900 B.C. Stone 
implements still much in use; tools and weapons of copper or of 
bronze containing but a small percentage of tin; flat axes; small 
triangular poniards with tongue or with rivets; poniards with 
bronze handles (toward the end of the epoch) ; pins; lozenge- 
shaped awls; glass tubes; beads of gold, bronze, and altered 
turquoise (callais) ; crescents of gold; bell-beaker pottery; in- 
humation by sepulture (burial in graves) ; dolmens and tumuli 
(grave mounds) rare. 

Epoch II, 1900-1600 B.C. Bronze rich in tin; axes with plain 
borders only slightly elevated; triangular poniards with rounded 
riveted base; pins with spherical perforated heads; open brace- 
lets with pointed ends; vases with two to four handles; sepulture 
same as in Epoch I. 

Epoch III, 1600-1300 B.C. Axes with borders slightly raised 
above the level of each face; axes with transverse ridges or 
shoulders; axes with wings; long, slender poniards; knives with 
bronze handles; pins with wheel heads; ribbon bracelets termi- 
nating in volutes ; pottery vases with deeply incised patterns ; vases 
with nipple-shaped ornamentation; sepulture for the most part 
by inhumation. 

Epoch IV, 1300-900 B.C. Axes with wings at the poll; axes 
with end sockets; swords with flat tongue, perforated for rivets, 
or with a longitudinal opening; swords with oval pommel; 
swords with antennae at the pommel, the swords being for the 
most part pistiliform; kidney-shaped bracelets; brooches with 
simple and with finely notched arches; double-edged razors; 
bridle bits; pottery vases of many types; incineration dominant. 



Its Beginnings 

THE Iron Age seems to have had its beginning in the valleys 
of the Euphrates and Tigris at about the same time as in 
Egypt (ca. 1300-1200 B.C.). The discovery of an enormous 
cache of iron was made prior to 1867 in the ruins of the palace 
of Khorsabad, near ancient Nineveh. This cache consisted for 
the most part of shuttle-shaped ingots, each weighing between 
four and two kilograms (8.8 and 4.4 pounds). Each ingot was 
perforated near one end for suspension. An iron ingot of simi- 
lar shape and pierced near one end was found at Mosul, Irak, 
and is now in Peabody Museum of Yale University. According 
to Christian Blinkenberg the extraction of iron from the ore 
began about 1300 B.C. on the southeastern shores of the Black 
Sea under the rule of the Hittite Kings. Sir Flinders Petrie, the 
Egyptologist of University College, London, states that iron was 
in common use at Gerar, southern Palestine as early as 1150 B.C. 

Iron was known in Crete as early as 1100 B.C. In Greece 
the first epoch of the Iron Age corresponds with the Dipylon 
epoch (1200-800 B.C.). The beginning of the Iron Age in Italy 
is placed at about 1000 B.C. 

In Scandinavia the Iron Age is divided into two epochs. 
The first, called Pre-Roman, is characterized by the mediocrity 
of its civilization, also by the rarity of the objects found. The 
second, known as the Roman epoch, covers the first four cen- 
turies A.D. During this epoch commerce by way of the North 
Sea played an important role. 

In central and western Europe, the Iron Age is divided into 
two epochs, known as Hallstatt and La Tene. The Hallstatt 
epoch in France is synchronous with the late Celtic, the epoch of 
La Tene with Gaulois culture. 



The Hallstatt Epoch 

Hallstatt culture in Europe is traceable over an extensive 
territory from Hungary to Spain and Portugal. The type sta- 
tion — the cemetery of Hallstatt — is situated in the Austrian 
Salzkammergut, near important prehistoric salt mines. It was 
discovered in 1 846. During the next twenty years, 993 sepultures 
were uncovered. Of these 525 were inhumations, 455 complete 
incinerations, and 13 partial incinerations. Apparently incinera- 
tion was dominant at the beginning but inhumation led at the 
close of the epoch. 

For the most part skeletons have an east-west orientation and 
lie either on the back or side. Grave goods from Hallstatt in- 
clude a large and varied assortment. Unfortunately, very little 
attention was given to the pottery, especially by the earlier inves- 
tigators. Objects of bronze outnumber those of iron. Amber 
was plentiful. Specimens of glass and gold were also found. 
The Hallstatt cemetery represents two phases: 

Phase I, ca. 900-700 B.C. Ceramic urns with flaring rim, 
swords of bronze and iron, bronze razors, Italian vases of 
beaten bronze. 

Phase II, ca. 700-500 B.C. Ceramic urns with bulging out- 
lines, black figured Attic vases of the sixth century B.C., bronze 
anklets and bracelets, belts of beaten bronze with stamped 
ornamentation, bronze earrings, fibulae and pins of bronze, iron 
swords, and poniards with antennae. In Germany and Switzer- 
land the Hallstatt epoch has been divided into four phases. 

Hallstatt tumuli may be divided into two categories, those 
in which the central sepulture is at the original level of the 
ground and those in which it occupies a pit excavated beneath 
the original ground level. The tumuli are for the most part 
oval, or circular, with a depression at the center. The highest 
are not more than sixteen or twenty feet (five or six meters) in 
elevation and the diameter rarely exceeds a hundred feet (thirty 

Chariot burials first appeared during the second phase of 
the Hallstatt epoch and persisted during the epoch of La Tene. 
The chariots were light and luxurious and were generally four- 
wheeled. Forged iron covered the hubs and even the spokes. 



Hallstatt Weapons 

Among Hallstatt weapons there are three types of sword: 
an early type of bronze not unlike those belonging to the fourth 
epoch of the Bronze age; a long heavy copy in iron of the bronze 
sword; a short sword of iron with the pommel terminating in two 

Courtesy of the British Museum 


Found in the Thames, and generally conceded to be of Hallstatt period 

1/6 actual size 

horns or antennae. The scabbard is usually of wood or leather, 
rarely of beaten bronze. The Hallstatt dagger with antennae 
is more varied than the sword; the iron blade is pointed and 
generally ribbed, the handle of bronze or iron, terminating in 
antennae. During the second Hallstatt phase metal sheaths 
were the rule for daggers — at first bronze, later iron. The bow 
and arrow were not much in use during Hallstatt times. Helmet 
and shield, if they existed at all, were made of perishable mate- 
rial. The knives were of iron and included for the first time 
those with articulating blades, a form which persists today in 
the ordinary pocket knife. 

Vases, Pottery, and Metal Vessels 

Buckets of bronze were of two types, one cylindrical, the 
other bulging in outline. Both were made by riveting together 
pieces of sheet bronze. The term situla is applied to the vessel 
with bulging outline. Some are plain, others are decorated. 
Glass vases first appeared in central Europe during the second 
Hallstatt phase. Cauldrons of bronze usually supported by tri- 
pods were in general use, especially in Greece and Italy. Bronze 
cups and bowls were more numerous than they .were during the 
Bronze Age. i 

Although the potter's wheel was not yet known in central 



and western Europe, handmade pottery reflected a considerable 
degree of skill on the part of the potter. Some of the pottery 
was reserved for funeral purposes and some for common use. 
That for common use was made of a black, brown, or reddish 

Courtesy of the 
Britisli Museum 


left, Lid, 1/4 actual 

•ight, Situla 

vith lid. 1/6 actual size. 
Hallstatt epoch 

Both from Hallstatt, 

paste, rather fine in texture, but friable and not well baked. 
Most of the common ware is perfectly plain. Cinerary urns 
were often tastefully decorated. The classic meander motif 
appeared in Europe during the Hallstatt epoch, and with the 
beginning of this epoch painted pottery first appeared in Ger- 
many. Most of the painted vases are covered by a yellow slip 
on which geometic figures in black, or red and black, are painted. 

Dress and Ornamentation 

Dress and ornament in Hallstatt times were marked by sim- 
plicity. Bronze bracelets with iron inlay date from the first 
phase. Hallstattians were the first to enamel their bronzes. 
Belts and bracelets were much in vogue among the women dur- 
ing the second phase. The belts were generally of ample 


breadth, sometimes broad enough to be a good substitute for a 
corset. Leather belts with trappings of stamped metal were 
highly prized. Fibulae of the first phase were nearly always of 
bronze, those with unilateral spring being the oldest; following 
these came the type with bilateral spring and the type without 
any spring and with or without a serpentiform arch. The clasp 
varies in length and is sometimes provided with a terminal 

The use of gold was limited almost wholly to small articles 
such as bracelets, earrings, pendants, etc. Amber occurred in 
more than three hundred sepultures at Hallstatt. It came from 
the Baltic Sea and was supposed to have medicinal as well as 
talismanic power. In this class also belonged coral. 

Throughout the Iron Age symbols connected with sun wor- 
ship were employed as decorative features on articles of apparel 
and adornment. These included the crescent, horse, swan, sun's 
disk, etc. The golden ritual bowl found near Zurich is orna- 
mented with such symbols. 

The Epoch of La Tene 

Cultural epochs like individuals must have names. The two 
epochs of the Iron Age were christened Hallstatt and La Tene 
respectively by H. Hillebrand at the Stockholm International 
Congress in 1874. Later (1885), O. Tischler divided the epoch 
of La Tene into three phases and these were christened by 
S. Reinach as follows: 

La Tene I. 500-300 B.C. 
La Tene II. 300-100 B.C. 
La Tene III. 100 b.c-1 a.d. 

The Type Station 

The type station, La Tene (meaning "shallow"), is at the 
northeastern end of Lake Neuchatel and on the south bank of 
the river Thielle in Switzerland. When excavations were begun 
there in 1858 by Colonel Schwab the site was completely covered 
by the waters of the lake. Later important engineering works 
resulted in lowering the water level of the lake some six or seven 



feet and bringing the site above water level. This facilitated 
enormously the work of excavation. Emile Vouga soon dis- 
covered substructures of numerous buildings and of two bridges 
across the Thielle which drains Lake Neuchatel. Paul Vouga 
has continued the work in recent years. The principal collections 
from La Tene are now in the Musee Historique at Neuchatel 
and include many weapons both offensive and defensive. The 
prevalence of these weapons, the absence of evidence suggesting 
a place of manufacture, the absence of female apparel and ob- 
jects pertaining to family life, led Paul Vouga to the conclusion 
that La Tene was a fortified emporium occupied by the military. 
The type station represents La Tene II in point of time and not 
the whole of the epoch. 



Epoch of La Tene. 1 3 actual size 

Courtesy of the British Museum 

Each of the three phases of La Tene culture corresponds to 
a well defined evolution of two characteristic objects, the sword 
and the fibula, or safety-pin. During La Tene I phase, the 
swords are short with tapering point, feminine apparel rich, 
fibulae with arch recurved at the free end, bronze bracelets of 
many types, torques, ornaments of gold and of bronze. The 
swords of La Tene II were long with slightly rounded point. 
The fibulae have a recurved arch with the end no longer free 
but attached to the bow of the arch. The bracelets were of 
glass, those of metal becoming rare. The swords of La Tene 
III are extremely long with rounded point. As for fibulae, the 
recurved caudal appendage is completely fused with the arch. 

Courtesy of the British Museum 

Top and side views of two bronze safety pins, La Tene I; the one on the left is 2/3 actual 
size; the one on the right is actual size 

Top and side views of two bronze safety pins, La Tene IT; both are actual size 

Bronze safety pin, La Tene III; 2/3 actual size 

Silver safety pin from a cremation in Essex, England; La Tene III; 2/3 actual size 




La Tene Weapons and Tools 

The lance and javelin were companion pieces to the sword 
throughout the epoch of La Tene. The dagger was derived 
from the Hallstatt dagger with antennae. A curious transfor- 
mation of the dagger hilt took 
place toward the close of La 
Tene times. The lump between 
the antennae was converted into a 
human head, thus making arms of 
the antennae and body and legs 
of the rest of the hilt. The dag- 
ger with human effigy hilt occurs 
in the British Isles as well as in 
France, Italy, and Switzerland. 

Defensive armor was rare 
during the epoch of La Tene, the 
shield being the chief exception. 
In some cases at least the shields 
were made of wood with a metal 
knob (the umbo) in its center. 
In 1910 Paul Vouga discovered a 
wooden shield at La Tene in as- 
Epoch of sociation with the skeleton of a 
warrior and the remains of his 
chariot, including a wooden yoke, 
and his spear and his sword. The ellipsoidal type of shield 
persisted in La Tene III, while the semi-cylindrical type dis- 
appeared. The shield of enameled bronze found in the Thames 
at Battersea (London) in 1855 is a work of art. Its ornamen- 
tation includes twenty-seven buttons of red enamel. Much stress 
was laid by La Tene warriors on military insignia. The wheel 
and the wild boar were favorite symbols. The wild boar is 
portrayed on a frieze at Narbonne, France, on bas-reliefs at 
Orange, France, and on the shield found in Witham River, 
England, and surmounts the warrior helmets on the vase of 
Gundestrup, Denmark. 

Among tools the iron ax plays an important role. The iron 
ax with socket paralleling the blade made its appearance during 


From Neuchatel. Switzerland. 
La Tene 

{After Reinach) 



the epoch of La Tene. Winged axes (of iron) and axes with 
end sockets similar to those of the Bronze Age and Hallstatt 
epoch continued in use. 
The big iron knife with 
but a single edge served 
as a weapon as well as 
a tool. In the cemetery 
of Chalons-sur-Marne a 
knife was buried with 
every man, woman, and 
child. A drawing knife 
of the type still in 
use among coopers dates 
from La Tene III. An 
inventory of the objects 
from a foundry site of 
La Tene III in Hungary 
included a pair of for- 
ceps. The first compasses 
date from the epoch of 
La Tene. 

Scissors came into use 
for the first time during 
the epoch of La Tene. 
They consisted of a bar 
of iron terminating at 
each end in a blade and 
bent in such a way as to 
bring the edges of the 
two blades together and 
hold them in position 
under pressure — the pro- 
totype of the sheep 
shears still in use. 

As means of accu- 
mulating wealth developed, facilities for protecting it were 
found in the shape of locks and keys. The iron key was in 
common use throughout La Tene III. Of the three types, the 
simplest is a bent bar of iron, the so-called temple key; another 




Epoch of La Tene. Length of shield, about 31 inches 




type is in the form of the letter T; still another is a bent bar 
of iron provided with a variable number of teeth near the end 

opposite the handle. 

Andirons of iron appeared spo- 
radically during the Hallstatt 
epoch, were rare during La Tene I 
and II, and were widely used dur- 
ing La Tene III. Pokers, pothang- 
ers, spits, cauldrons, and large 
cauldron forks completed the in- 
ventory of hearth utensils. 

The plow, scythe, sickle, and 
a species of hooked knife were 
among the more important agri- 
cultural implements. During La 
Tene times the handmill with cir- 
cular rotating milling stone first 
came into use. 

The introduction of the pot- 
ter's wheel, unknown north of the 
Alps prior to La Tene I, marked 
a distinct step in advance. Pottery 
forms are many and decorations 
are largely geometric. The designs 
were both incised and painted; plastic decoration was sometimes 
used, a good example being the so-called face urns (Fig. 40). 


Left, scissors; right, combination of 

scissors and razor for the same 

toilet case 

La Tene Coins 

The prototypes of the coins employed in western Europe dur- 
ing the epoch of La Tene, came from centers of Greek culture. 
According to Joseph Dechelette, gods are seldom represented on 
Gallic coins. The Gauls of southern France took for models the 
coins struck at Rome. A well known series is called the 
"Cavalryman." On one series the lion is figured, on another the 

J. Newton Friend states that coins were introduced into 
Briton from Gaul about 200 B.C., but even as late as Caesar's 
visit to the British Isles, iron bars were still used as currency 


in the interior — just as they were used in certain parts of Africa 
up to the outbreak of the World War in 1914. The bars 

Courtesy of the Berlin Museum fur Volkerkunde 

Fig. 40— FACE URNS 
1 and 4, from Pomerania; 2, from Posen; 3, from West Prussia. Hallstatt epoch 

closely resemble unfinished sword blades with blunt, rectangular 
edges. They often occur in hoards or caches; at Meon Hill 
in Gloucestershire, 394 bars were unearthed from the British 
Camp in 1824, and many other caches have been reported. 
The bars are not uniform in size or weight, the weights of 
the larger bars being simple multiples of the weights of the 
smaller bars. 


Courtesy -of the British Museum 


La Tene epoch. 1 3 actual size 

La Tene Articles of Adornment 

Gallic dress about 300 B.C. consisted of trousers, a smock 
held in at the waist by a belt, and a sagum or cloak often pro- 
vided with a hood. Many- 
colored garments were the 
rule, the richer ones being 
brocaded or embroidered in 
gold. Greek artists repre- 
sented barbaric warriors as 
going to combat nude except 
for the mantle. 

The principal elements en- 
tering into articles of adorn- 
ment were bronze, coral, and 
red enamel. Men wore belts, 
bracelets, rings, and torques.* 
Women wore belts, bracelets, 
rings, and torques, to which 
were added earrings and pen- 
dants. The fibula, usually of bronze or iron, was very much in 
vogue. The arch, pin, and spring were all one piece. The spring 
is always bilateral. In the first phase the foot, or recurved 
appendage, extending beyond the clasp is developed sufficiently 
to touch the arch; with the second phase it not only touches but 
is actually fastened to the arch by means of a ring; during the 
third phase appendage and arch are completely fused. 

The torque is seen on Gallic coins on which busts of warriors 
are represented. The warrior's belt of leather or cloth was 
fastened by a bronze clasp. A distinguishing character of La 
Tene belt buckles is that they are always of cast, instead of 
hammered, bronze. A chain belt of cast bronze was worn by 
women during the second phase. The chain belt is provided with 
an attractive pendant. Nearly all the bracelets were of bronze 
and they were especially esteemed by the women of La Tene 
I and II. Both bracelets and torques were sometimes orna- 
mented with red enamel. Bracelets of iron, gold, silver, lignite, 
schist, jet, and glass were rare. Some glass bracelets were 

Torque, a collar, usually twisted. 



colored yellow by means of sulphur, others dark blue by means 
of cobalt. 

La Tene Razors arid Other Toilet Articles 

As for toilet articles, razors of bronze were displaced by 
those of iron. The association of razor with sword proves that 
La Tene warriors shaved 




part of their beard at 
least. The Gauls are 
said to have worn long 
drooping mustaches and 
to have shaved their 
cheeks. There were 
tweezers for pulling out 
hairs and curettes for 
cleaning the ears and the 
nails. Women had al- 
ready learned the use of 
paints and pomades. Ac- 
cording to Pliny, soap 
was invented by the 
shiny-haired Gauls. 

The scarcity of combs 
in sepultures during the 
Iron Age is accounted for by assuming that wood was largely 
used in their manufacture. Most of the combs that have been 
preserved had but a single row of teeth. The pile village of 
Glastonbury has yielded a fine series of weavers' combs made 
of horn and bone. Although the mirror was known in Egypt 
and Greece as early as the Bronze Age, it seems to have been 
but little used in central and western Europe prior to the third 
phase of La Tene. 

La Tene Amulets 

The art and religion of La Tene are reflected in the many 
and varied amulets. Teeth of the wild boar were much prized 
as pendants. Both wheels and rings abounded during La Tene 
III, serving not only as amulets but also as media of exchange. 


From the cemetery at Vevey, Switzerland. 
La Tene epoch 

{After Naef) 


One of the tombs at Varilles (Marne), France, yielded a neck- 
lace composed of one hundred coral beads, one amber bead, one 
clay spindle whorl, one shell, a piece of human bone, and a tooth 
of the wild boar. The animals most favored for amulets were 
wild boars, horses, oxen, and rams. Entire figures of human and 
animal forms, as well as parts thereof, were employed as amulets. 
The crescent, swastika, and triskele were important symbols. 
To the number three there seems to have been attributed a magic 
quality. Beads and rings by threes are found suspended from 
torques. A tendency to repeat the same motif three times is to 
be noted, for example, in the triskele and the triple perforation 
of cranial amulets. 

La Tene Burial Customs 

Inhumation under tumuli continued in La Tene I and II, 
especially where Hallstatt culture had taken root. Chiefs and 
noted warriors were interred with their chariots; this was espe- 
cially true of La Tene I. Tumuli were soon superseded by flat 
inhumation tombs and later by incineration tombs. Flat inhuma- 
tion tombs of La Tene II are not so rich as those of the pre- 
ceding phase. It was no longer the fashion to bury chariots with 
the chiefs. Incineration tombs of La Tene III are poorer in 
grave goods than those where inhumation was practiced, and 
the objects are often injured by fire. 

The Center of La Tene Culture 

The center of La Tene culture was the region bounded by 
the Rhine and the Danube on the east and the Seine and Saone on 
the west. The numerous cemeteries testify to a relatively dense 
population; some of these contain from a hundred to a thousand 
burials. The Gauls seem to have been a mixture of the Celts 
from across the Rhine and the Ligurians from northern Italy. 



To divide man's cultural ascent from the very beginning up 
to historic time into a series of successive epochs and give 
to each an appropriate name as has been done in the previous 
chapters is all very well; but there is danger of magnifying the 
lines of division to such an extent as to obscure the ties that 
bind each epoch with the ones which precede and succeed it. 
It is well to study cultural elements in cross section; it is also 
important to trace cultural filaments longitudinally to see how 
and why certain filaments persist throughout long periods either 
unbroken or through splicing. In other words the culture complex 
can and should be studied independently of any artificial system 
of classification. An invention of one epoch often carries over 
into succeeding epochs and should be studied in the light of this 
fact rather than be cut up into epochal fragments. 

Among the cultural elements that can be treated in this way 
are: food getting; shelter both from the elements and from an 
enemy; clothing, ornament, and toilet; taming of fire; art and 
religion; language, music, and writing; labor and industry; 
domestication of animals and plants; transportation; commerce; 
the healing art; textiles and pottery; metallurgy. 




FOR untold ages man was a food-gatherer. He had no 
thought or even need of producing food. Thanks to the 
sparse human population and the prolific potential food supply 
in the shape of wild animals and plants, the only food problem, 
which confronted him was that of acquisition. One can imagine 
him saying: "The world's mine oyster, which with my knife I'll 
open." He matched wits with wild beasts and won nine times 
out of ten and then by degrees ninety-nine times out of a hun- 
dred. When game was scarce on land, he sought fish in the 
streams, and even when both failed him there were edible plants, 


Where a Cro-Magnon tribe fed almost exclusively on flesh of the woolly elephant 

Aurignacian epoch 

Students of the American School of Prehistoric Research digging 




berries, seeds, and roots. No matter what happened, the simple 
gathering of food sufficed. 


Where the wild horse was the principal article of food 

Students of the American School of Prehistoric Research digging 

His wants were simple; he could, in case of necessity, con- 
centrate on one kind or, at most, on a few kinds of foods : in 
Alpine heights during an interglacial epoch, the cave bear; on a 
loess-covered mountain slope of Czechoslovakia during the last 
glacial epoch, the woolly elephant; on the leeward side of a 
great natural escarpment at the camp site known as Solutre in 
France, the wild horse; and on the shores of Denmark and else- 
where in post-glacial time, shell fish. 

Resorting to Magic for Food 

With the increase in density of population and scarcity of 
game, recourse was had to magic. The first evidence of the use 
of magic is afforded by the art of the cave man during the period 
known as the Upper Paleolithic (Aurignacian, Solutrean, and 
Magdalenian epochs). Most of the animals depicted are game 


animals. Many of these are represented as wounded to death 
by clubs and javelins. Increase of the herd was just, as important 
as success in the chase; thus many of the representations are to 
be interpreted as an appeal to reproductive rather than to de- 
structive forces. The predominance of the female of the species 
is a challenge to motherhood as an indispensable asset. 

Among the game animals depicted by Cro-Magnon artists 
are: bison, antelope, wild ox, cave bear, horse, reindeer, red 
deer, chamois, elk, woolly elephant, musk ox, roebuck, wild 
boar, wild goat, wild sheep, crane, duck, goose, grouse, part- 
ridge, swan, various species of fish, and shell fish. 

Winning Against Brute Strength 

The question as to how men of the Old Stone Age were able 
to bring down game such as the mammoth, the cave bear, the 
bison, and the wild ox has not yet been solved. The killing of 
the bear was probably not unlike that practiced by the Ameri- 
can Indians. Several hunters co-operating can overcome a power- 
ful animal even though they use very primitive implements. 
Strategy plus numbers was able to win against brute strength 
even in the days of Neandertal man. 

During the succeeding Mesolithic period, certain species 
of game animals either became extinct or migrated, thereby 
necessitating changes in man's food supply. Elk, roebuck, stag, 
wild boar, and wild ox were still available, but woolly elephant 
and reindeer were not. Duck, goose, sea gull, and swan were 
to be had, also herring, sole, torsk, and various shell fish including 
oyster, cockle, mussel, and periwinkle. 

Man Begins to Produce Food 

During the Neolithic period epochal changes took place in 
the matter of food getting. While man did not cease to be a 
food gatherer, he became a food producer through domestica- 
tion of animals and plants. As a result his source of food supply 
was more constant, dependable, and varied. This added sense 
of security relative to the food quest had a far-reaching effect 
on the mode of life, making it possible to develop fixed abodes 
and the many advantages pertaining thereto. 



Among plants domesticated as early as the Neolithic period 
with a view to increasing the food supply, there should be men- 
tioned barley, rye, wheat, apple, pear, grape, strawberry, etc. 
There were three species of wheat, two of barley, and two of 
millet. The pea and the lentil have been found in Swiss pile 
villages. The Bronze Age races added only a few species, in- 
cluding oats; during the Iron Age the onion and turnip were 



SHELTER from the elements and from harmful beasts is a 
primal need. The passage from the pre-man stage to that 
of Homo probably involved the loss of a more or less hairy 
coat and rendered more acute the need of shelter from the cold. 
After food getting, protection from the elements and harmful 
beasts taxed the ingenuity of early man. Recourse was had at 
a very early period to caves and rock shelters. Primitive tem- 
porary structures of an artificial nature were no doubt made 
use of. 

Natural Caves and Rock Shelters 

It was not until the Acheulian epoch and especially the 
Mousterian epoch of Neandertal man that the apparently favor- 
ite abodes of man were natural caves and rock shelters. The 
custom continued to be popular with the races of Cro-Magnon 
during the Upper Paleolithic period; although some of the best 
known Cro-Magnon sites, such as Solutre, Willendorf, and 
Unter Wisternitz, were in the open. 

Moor Villages 

The Mesolithic races likewise continued to live in natural 
caves and rock shelters as well as in the open. However, some 
of the best known Maglemosean stations may be described as 
moor villages, for example Mullerup and Svaerdborg. Caves, 
both natural and artificial, were inhabited during the Neolithic 
period, but the best known stations are the villages along water 
and river systems. A village consisted of a number of simple 
rounded huts sheltering a shallow pit of the same shape. The 
walls were composed of poles, branches, and a coating of clay. 
Huts were sometimes divided so as to differentiate kitchen from 
bedroom. There are huts of the rectangular type with walls of 



upright staves or slabs strengthened by a weft of withes running 
horizontally like those found by A. Schliz at Grossgartach, 
southern Germany; the latter belongs to an advanced phase 
of the Neolithic period. 

Pile Villages 

The custom of building habitations over the water was de- 
veloped before the close of the Neolithic period and persisted 
through the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. The lakes of Switzer- 
land and neighboring countries are especially noted for their pile 
villages. The Neolithic villages are nearer the present shore- 
lines than are those of the Bronze Age, due to the fact that the 
water level of the lakes was higher during the Neolithic than 
during the Bronze Age. In regions where forests were all but 
impenetrable, villages over water and transportation by water 
would be a logical development. Such a system also has the 
advantage of affording ready means of protection from attack 
as well as of refuse disposal. The walls of Neolithic dwellings 
were built of upright slabs or timbers. The so-called block 
house of the log-cabin type did not appear until the Age of 

Neolithic land habitations are chiefly centered along the 
principal water courses; they were likewise more plentiful in 
regions where flint abounded. Many hut pits have been ex- 
plored. Pits for storage as well as for refuse are found in 
connection with land dwellings. 

The Terramare of Italy and the Crannogs of Ireland 

The terramare of Italy and the crannogs (stockaded islands) 
of Ireland represent an intermediate stage between the terres- 
trial and the Swiss lake villages. The terramare resemble lake 
villages since they are built on piles, but they are constructed 
over terra firma. They depend on an embankment and ditch 
filled with water for their protection. 



THE growth of commerce kept pace with the increase in 
number and size of population centers. The new turn in 
human affairs made possible the accumulation by individuals, 
as well as by communities, of wealth undreamed of by men of 
the Old Stone Age. Necessity for protection of property as 
well as of person became acute and was met by the development 
of strongholds or fortifications. The sites for these were often 
skillfully chosen and made still more nearly impregnable by 
means of ramparts and trenches. The Neolithic camp of Peu- 
Richard (Charente-Inferieure) , France, was protected by two 
sets of trenches with a rampart between. The simple type of 
camp, the one most frequently met with, is situated on the point 
of a promontory or the edge of an escarpment. 

Earth Fortifications 

Fortifications of earth and stone were built by peoples during 
the Neolithic as well as during the Age of Metals. The simplest 
form of defense is an enclosure delimited by a trench and ram- 
part, the earth from the trench forming the rampart. These 
enclosures are generally of more or less circular form, the ram- 
part usually being inside the trench. Some of the enclosures 
have an entrance gap, some do not. When there is an entrance 
gap and no building within, the structure was probably only a 
pen for cattle or other stock. The building of earthern enclos- 
ures was practiced over a long period of time, varying, however, 
in different countries. According to Dr. R. A. S. Macalister of 
Dublin, they date back in Ireland at least to the Bronze Age. 

The commonest enclosures are those with a single rampart; 
many have a double rampart, the two being separated only by 
the width of the intervening ditch. Forts with a triple rampart 




are rare. Underground structures in connection with forts con- 
sist of trenches or pits, the walls of which are lined by means 
of dry masonry. The whole was covered by a series of horizon- 
tal stone lintels. If the space to be covered exceeded the dimen- 
sions of a manageable lintel, it was covered by a process of 

The simple type of underground structure is a small cham- 
ber, two or more meters long by one or more wide. There may 
be a succession of small chambers with passages affording ac- 
cess. In some cases there is a two-story system of passages. 
Simple underground chambers were probably for storage. The 
more elaborate ones were obviously for affording means of 
escape in case of a successful attack. 

Stone Forts 

More imposing than the earthen fortifications are the stone 
forts or brochs; these are generally assigned to the Bronze Age, 





but probably date from the Iron Age. They are especially 
numerous in Ireland. A good example is Staigue Fort 
(Fig. 45) near Waterville (Kerry), Irish Free State. It stands 
on a knoll at the base of a natural amphitheater and looks out 
upon the lower stretches of Kenmare Bay. Its entrance is on 
the southwest. The circular enclosure has a diameter of about 
160 feet (forty-nine meters). The walls are extremely thick 

* Corbeling, the arrangement of stones or bricks in building a wall, so that 
successive courses project beyond those below them. 


(twenty or twenty-two feet) and enclose two oval chambers, 
both of which are accessible only from, the enclosure. The walls 
are of dry masonry and are provided with series of stone steps 
by means of which the top of the surrounding wall may be 

The broch is a defense tower; it is also sometimes referred 
to as "burgh," and in the Hebrides Islands as "dun." The broch 
is limited to northern England, Scotland, Ireland and neighbor- 
ing islands. At least 400 brochs are known, of which 145 are 
in Caithness, 60 in Sutherland, 70 on the Orkneys, and 75 on 
the Shetland Islands. 



AT what stage man began to supplement his natural hairy 
coat through the use of something artificial in the way of 
clothing, it would be difficult to say. Even in the time of Nean- 
dertal man the only evidence bearing on this subject is the 
omnipresent flint scraper, a tool admirably adapted to the clean- 
ing and preparing of skins presumably for clothing; these were 
thrown over the shoulders and secured in some simple manner. 

Garment Making 

That the Cro-Magnons wore clothing, the numerous bone 
and ivory needles afford proof. On the other hand, the human 
form was always portrayed in the nude. A possible single ex- 
ception to this rule is to be seen in the clothed female figures 
on the wall of the Cogul rock shelter in Spain dating from the 
final phase of the Paleolithic or perhaps even later. Of the 
number and kind of garments worn by either sex during a Neo- 
lithic period, very little is known. There is, however, a good 
deal of material, especially from the pile villages, which throws 
light on the character of the materials used in the making of 
garments. The textile art, a Neolithic invention, includes knit- 
ting, spinning, weaving, embroidery, netting, and the making of 
baskets. Loom weights, spindle whorls, bundles of raw flax, fiber, 
and examples of both taffeta and twill were found at Roben- 

Early Costumes 

Scandinavian oak coffins, especially from Jutland and 
Schleswig, have yielded some well-preserved Bronze Age gar- 
ments. Complete male costumes have been found in five dif- 
ferent localities in Jutland alone. Bronze Age female costumes 
have likewise come to light in Jutland. The female costume of 




the Hallstatt epoch consisted of an armless tunic and a mantle 
fastened in front by means of fibulae. About all that is known 
of La Tene clothing comes from texts and representations of 

barbarians in antique art. The 
Gauls are said to have worn a 
tunic and trousers, also a man- 
tle or cloak. 

Man's predilection for arti- 
cles of adornment is as old as 
his taste for art. In deposits 
of the Mousterian epoch one 
finds faceted bits of manganese 
with which Neandertal man 
may have painted his own body, 
or perhaps the skins worn as 
clothing. The Cro-Magnons 
were fond of bone and ivory 
beads and pendants, as well as 
of perforated animal teeth and 
shells. These were employed 
singly or in groups and per- 
haps in the form of necklaces. 
Clay stamps which must have 
served to apply coloring matter to the skin have been found in 
certain Neolithic sites. 


Among the substances out of which articles of personal 
adornment were made during Neolithic times there should be 
mentioned: amber, amethyst, flint, gypsum, jadeite, jet, lignite, 
limestone, schist, slate, and altered turquoise (callais). Neo- 
lithic bracelets were made for the most part of stone or shell. 
More than three thousand fragments of bracelets made of schist 
were found at one site in France. The Neolithic flint bracelets 
from Abydos in Egypt are veritable works of art. 

Coming to the Bronze Age, the principal ornaments for 
women were a bronze band about the neck, a great bronze buckle 
on the belt, spiral bracelets, anklets, fibulae, combs, and finger 
rings. Torques appeared at the beginning of the Bronze Age. 


(After Keller) 


Necklaces consisted of beads of amber, bronze, glass, gold, silver 
or turquoise strung on a woollen thread. At Montlingen, near 
St. Gallen, Switzerland, Hans Bessler found large beads and but- 
tons of reddish brown Sicilian amber, similar to those found at 
Bologna. Pins with ornamented heads were used to fasten gar- 
ments about the neck and shoulders; they were also used as hair- 
pins. The pinhead took on several forms, such as the wheel, 
sphere, ring, and vase. The fibula, or safety pin, was much in 
use. By the close of the Bronze Age there were four types in 
western Europe; the fiddle bow, the highly arched bow, the 
ribbed bow, and the serpentiform bow. 

Gold and silver were both employed in ornamenting tools, 
utensils, and weapons. Ceremonial vases and utensils were fre- 
quently made wholly of gold or silver; so also were bracelets, 
collars, crescents, earrings, torques, etc. According to the Iliad 
the socket of Hector's lance was encrusted with gold. 

Thousands of amber beads were found at Hallstatt, testify- 
ing to commercial contact with the Baltic. They were found 
in more than 300 sepultures. Coral was also prized for its 
color and supposed medicinal and talismanic power. Beads of 
glass grew in popularity. 

During the second epoch of the Iron Age, known as La Tene, 
taste in ornament was gratified in many ways. Beads, belts, 
bracelets, earrings, fibulae, and pendants were worn by women. 
Both coral and red enamel were much prized. Men turned to 
richly ornamented weapons, but by no means disdained beads 
and bracelets. Barbaric warriors are represented as going to 
combat nude except for a mantle, although men habitually wore 
tunic and trousers. The torque was worn by both sexes. The 
Dying Gaul in the Capitoline Museum, Rome, wears one. The 
spring of La Tene fibulae is always bilateral. Much attention 
was given to the recurved appendage extending beyond the 
clasp, it gradually fusing with the arch. 

The bracelets, much prized by women, were generally of 
bronze, but others were of glass, jet, lignite, or schist. Some 
bracelets were closed and in one piece; some were open; still 
others were open, but provided with means of fastening the two 
ends together. Glass bracelets were colored yellow by sulphur, 
or blue by cobalt. Both torques and bracelets were sometimes 


ornamented by means of red enamel. Finger rings were much 
worn by women, but seldom by men. Women wore them by 
preference on the right hand. Rings with settings made their 
appearance before the close of La Tene epoch. 

Toilet Articles 

A sense for toilet articles was developed in Neolithic times. 
The combs were of bone, horn, and wood. To these were later 
added combs of bronze. The oldest razors were of flint and 
obsidian;* these were followed by razors of bronze and iron. 
The oldest mirrors were also of stone. The mirror, in use by 
Greeks and Egyptians as early as the Bronze age, was almost 
unknown to central and western Europe until the third phase of 
La Tene. Bronze Age tweezers have been found associated 
with combs, one of their uses obviously being to remove super- 
fluous hair. The curette for ears and nails is not so often met 
with as are tweezers. A shallow, short-handled bronze spoon 
was probably employed by women in the preparation of paints 
and pomades. Scissors first appeared during the epoch of 
La Tene. 

* Obsidian, volcanic glass of a solid, compact structure. 



HEAT and light are among man's elemental needs. The 
air we breathe and the food we eat both contribute to our 
body heat. Supplementing the natural heat of the body, man 
has developed the clothing habit. Another method of heat 
regulation very early arrived at is fire. Strangely enough, the 
first steps toward the production and control of fire were taken 
long before man learned to tame animals and plants. Primitive 
man both saw and felt the potency of fire before he had acquired 
knowledge of how to produce it. A volcano in eruption, a bolt 
of lightning, or friction of tree branches kept in motion by the 

Fig. 47— STONE LAMP 

On the under surface there is an incised figure of the wild goat. From the cavern 
of La Mouthe, Dordogne. Upper Paleolithic period 

3/5 actual size 



wind, might suffice to start a fire; in its wake man might come 
upon the roasted carcass of a game animal. Thus, by degrees 
man learned the value of fire, not only in producing heat and 
light, but also in rendering his food more palatable. 

That fire has its limitations was a matter of observation. 
It has natural barriers, such as bare soil, rock, water, etc., it is 
encouraged by the wind, and it must have combustibles to feed 
on. Man learned to prolong the life of fire by the application 
of fresh fuel, and found that fire may be transported by means 
of brands. All this was antecedent to his knowledge of how to 
kindle a fire by artificial means. 

Burnt flints have been found in connection with Lower Paleo- 
lithic habitation levels; but the first well-defined hearths do not 
appear until the Middle Paleolithic period (Mousterian epoch). 
The oldest known fire-making apparatus dates from the Upper 
Paleolithic period. Scarified lumps of pyrites and flints, used 
as "strike-a-lights" have been found in deposits of Magdalehian 
age. That the Cro-Magnon races made use of fire for lighting 
purposes is apparent by the presence of mural art in dark cav- 
erns and of stone lamps. Scrapings from the interior of the 
lamp in Figure 47 were analyzed chemically and were found to 
contain animal fat, the burning of which could have been con- 
trolled by means of a wick. 

During the Neolithic period the uses of fire were multiplied 
and perfected. Without it the manufacture of pottery would 
have been impossible. The transition from the Stone Age to 
the Age of Metals could never have been effected except through 
the medium of fire, since it is essential to the reduction of metal- 
lic ores. 




Art the Handmaid of Religion 

The first manifestations of art worthy of the name were 
coincident with the stage of cultural evolution known as 
the Aurignacian. Credit for this step is due to the Cro-Magnon 
race, dominant in parts of Asia, 
Africa, and Europe some thirty to 
forty thousand years ago. Religion 
in its primeval form probably ante- 
dated art. However that may be, 
art became the handmaid of religion 
'as early as Aurignacian times and 
has remained so to a large extent 
ever since. 

Cave Man's Art Still Being 

For years the record of fossil 
man's handiwork in the realm of art 
and religion has been unfolding and 
the end is not yet in sight. Every 
year new discoveries are being made 
which furnish evidence of new 
phases and an ever-widening area 
of distribution of cave art. The 
same type of paleolithic human fe- 
male figurine is now known to occur 
from western France, across Ger- 
many, Italy, Austria, Czechoslovakia, southern Russia, and as 
far east as Irkutsk in Siberia — a distance of about 7000 miles 
(11,200 kilometers). 

Fig. 48— THE "VENUS OF 

Female figurine of stone from the 

loess station of Willendorf, Austria 

Aurignacian epoch 

3/4 actual size 



The Primitive Art of the Neandertal Man 

We are accustomed to think of Neandertal man as devoid 
of artistic sense. It is true lhe left nothing in the way of scu lp- 
ture, eng ravi ng, and p ainting. That he did, however, have a 
t sjejns^oXiiaxrp^ny-©^uco^D-rJL^ is evidenced byjiis handiwork in 
th £_shaping of flint toolsj He must also be given credit for 
discernment of beauty and quality of the material employed in 
his industry. Hexagonal rock crystals attracted his attention. 
Those of sufficient size were sometimes chipped into tools both 
useful and beautiful. (See frontispiece.) 

There is some evidence that even proto-Neandertal man 
was attracted by natural objects which fortuitously resembled 
familiar animal forms. These were picked up as curiosities. 
He soon learned to supplement nature's work, for example in a 
nodule of flint, by strengthening the likeness to an animal. Primi- 
tive man might well have been attracted by suggestive natural 
forms just as we are today. Imagination has always played 
an important role in art and was, no doubt, the chief attendant 
at its birth. 

How Man First Came To Be an Artist 

Additional light has been thrown on how man first came to be 
an artist by Emil Baechler's discoveries of Wildenmannlisloch, 
a cavern situated a mile above sea level in the canton of St. 
Gallen, Switzerland. Among the relics found in the floor de- 
posits of the cavern, there is a piece of the lower jaw of the cave 
bear which has a striking resemblance to a human head and 
body; the concavity of the socket which held the canine forms 
the neck and chin. The piece bears evidence of a considerable 
amount of wear as if it had been carried as a fetish. The Paleo- 
lithic hunter who treasured this piece could have inhabited 
Wildenmannlisloch only during an interglacial epoch — presum- 
ably the last one, the Riss-Wiirm. The deposit can also be dated 
by the fact that it rests on a sterile glacial deposit (Riss) and 
is covered by a sterile glacial deposit (Wiirm). The piece in 
question is probably 100,000 years old and supports the pre- 
sumptive evidence cited above, all of which points to the in- 
fluence of fortuitous resemblance in nature to animate forms 



as bearing on primeval man's nascent artistic bent. Once de- 
tected, natural effigies would be gathered and treasured and 


From the cavern of La Mairie, Dordogne. Magdalenian epoch 
{After Breuil) 

means would eventually be found to supplement and improve 
on nature's haphazard creations. r _^ 

The evolution of Paleolithic mural art can be traced through } ■ jv, 
its relation to the floor deposits and the superposition of mural 
figures. / This had been done by the Abbe Breuil, who finds four 
phases. Paleolithic art is noted for its realism. This is espe- 
cially true of the phases leading to the period of its highest de- 

The Problems of the Cave Artist 

In his pursuit of realism in art, the cave man had a two-fold 
objective; his first concern was to reproduce a faithful likeness 
of his model out of the means at his disposal. Stone was used 
as a ground on which to paint, draw, and incise figures, usually 
of animals; it was also employed in order to obtain figures in 
relief and in the round. The cave artist made use of other 
media than stone — bone, ivory, and the horn of reindeer and 
stag for example. This was art for art's sake, or to put it in an- 
other way — art for magic's sake. No utilitarian purpose was 
served except indirectly through the channels of magic. In- 


stead of art for art's sake, the artist often had in view the em- 
bellishment of tools; that is to say, the object decorated served 
its purpose not only as a work of art and magic, but also as an 
implement. Here the artist had to meet and overcome difficul- 
ties not inherent in the simple problem of reproducing a model; 
the ingenuity with which he met and overcame these difficulties 
is nothing short of phenomenal. In order to meet the exigencies 
of the case it was often necessary to represent the animal figure 
in an unusual and even bizarre attitude. Moreover, if the ani- 
mal figure was to be reproduced in the round, precautions must 
be taken in order to reduce to a minimum the danger of break- 
age, for objects in daily use are sensitive to hazards of this kind. 
If a reindeer is to ornament the handle of a dagger, the 
problem of what to do with the horns of the animal must be 
solved in such a manner as to protect them as well as the hunter's 
hand. Then there are the legs of the animal, which should be 
visible though not disengaged from the common mass represent- 
ing the handle and the reindeer's body. The cave artist's happy 
solution of all these difficulties without sacrifice of his artistic 
and realistic canons is to be noted in the bone dagger from 
Laugerie-Basse. The artist placed the reindeer in a most un- 
usual pose and transfixed it without sacrificing any of its quali- 
ties as a living, breathing organism. 

Adorning the Javelin Thrower 

Another useful and nearly always decorated object was the 
javelin thrower — a shaft with a handhold at one end and a hook 
or crochet at the other. The hook end of the shaft was the 
field chosen for embellishment. If reindeer horn was used, the 
artist sometimes took advantage of the palmate portion of the 
antler out of which to fashion some animal form. A well known 
example is the dart thrower from Bruniquel, France, the shaft 
of which is decorated with a figure of a mammoth in the round. 
There is nothing graceful about the mammoth with the possible 
exception of its tapering trunk. In this figure the elephantine 
clumsiness has all but vanished. The animal faces toward the 
handle end of the shaft (which has been lost) . The body of the 
shaft becomes the head, neck, and body of the mammoth. The 


hook or crochet rises from the root of the tail. There are still 
the trunk, tusks, and the four legs to account for; trunk and 
legs are cut from the palmate portion of the reindeer horn and 
stand out free from the head and body; they depend for safety 
from breakage on sloping toward and uniting at a common 
terminal center. The fact that they are still intact, while the 
handle was broken off and lost, is proof of the effectiveness of 
the artist's disposition of them. What to do with the tusks was 
the most awkward problem of all; they must be saved at all 
costs, for a mammoth without tusks would never do. Being 
rigid, they could not follow the supple trunk, so they were lifted 
slightly at their base and represented in relief along the sides 
of the shaft terminating in the direction of the handle. Having 
thus disturbed the normal relation between trunk and tusks, it 
was not easy to dispose of the ears and eyes without some sacri- 
fice of their anatomic relation to both trunk and tusks. 

This is the one weak spot in the composition, and it has 
probably been the chief cause of the differences of opinion as to 
the meaning and use of this object. At first the mammoth was 
supposed to be the handle of a dagger, the blade of which had 
been lost. Later the object was conceded to be a javelin thrower, 
but there was still confusion as to what had become of the mam- 
moth's trunk. Was it represented by the handle end of the 
shaft against which the two tusks are plastered; was it bent 
downward and backward so as to fuse with the forefeet and 
help in the task of mutual self-protection? The latter inter- 
pretation is surely right; whether the other is also right, and the 
trunk appears twice, it would be difficult to say until the lost 
piece shall have been found. 

Animal Models 

The ivory javelin thrower from La Madeleine illustrates a 
different method of using the animal form as a decorative 
feature (Fig. 50). It was probably a lioness which served as a 
model. As in the preceding case, the animal's head is directed 
toward the handle end of the shaft, but head, neck, and body 
no longer are merged in the shaft; they are disengaged from it 
except at the tail, hindfeet, and forefeet. In order to bring the 



—"«~ «~ «. 


From the rock shelter of La Madeleine, Dordogne. A portion of the shaft is missing 
Magdalenian epoch 

(After Brcuil) 

body as close as possible to the shaft, the body is made to sway 
backward until the center of gravity is over the hindfeet and 
the nose over the forefeet. 

This method of attaching the animal figure to the shaft of 
the javelin thrower through the feet and tail is the one most 
frequently employed. Examples have been reported from the 
caves of Enlene (Ariege) and Arudy (Basses-Pyrenees), both 
in France. The splendid bison from the rock shelter of La 
Madeleine is obviously the decorated portion of a javelin thrower 
of this type, the shaft having been lost. 

While quadrupeds were the favorite models, birds were also 
employed, and very effectively,* if we are to judge from the 
fragment of a javelin thrower found at Mas d'Azil (Ariege), 
France, and happily restored by Breuil. Here again the orien- 
tation is the same as with the last-named examples. The bird, 
a grouse, is made to sit tight against the shaft — feet and tail 
spread in opposite directions. The head stood out prominently 
and unfortunately was broken off during prehistoric time, as 
was also the handle. 

There is another class of javelin throwers decorated with 
animals in such a way as practically to eliminate the danger of 
breakage. In these no effort is made to represent the entire 
figure. A fairly straight piece of reindeer horn of uniform 


size throughout was chosen. The distal* portion was then 
carved so as to bring out in relief a portion of the animal to be 
figured — its head, neck, shoulders, and forelegs, for example. 
A favorite motif was the horse, and the forelock was executed 
in such a manner as to produce the required crochet. Several 
fine javelin throwers of this type were found at Bruniquel (Tarn- 
et-Garonne), France. 

Something new in the way of cave art came to light in the 
Cavern of Trois-Freres (Ariege), France. Count Begouen 
found there the head of a goat carved from reindeer horn with 
inlaid eyes of another material. A second example of inlay was 
later found in the same cavern. It is the decorated portion of 
a dart thrower. On one face there is engraved a goose with 
neck bent forward as if in flight; on the opposite face the same 
bird is sculptured in high relief, with the head turned backward. 
The eye is represented by a deep pit in which there was orig- 
inally an inlay. 

Human Models 

Art processes leading to conventionalism crept in before 
the close of the Magdalenian epoch. These affected representa- 
tions of human as well as animal forms. The stylistic human 
female figurines of lignite from Petersfels (Baden) are ex- 
amples. Peyrony has found in the cave of La Roche (Dor- 
dogne) stones with engraved figures similar in stylistic pattern 
to the lignite statuettes from Petersfels. Both belong to the 
Lower Magdalenian epoch; hence they would be contempo- 
raneous with the so-called Venus impudique, a figurine found 
years ago in the rock shelter of Laugerie-Basse. 

Significance of Cave Art 

Peyrony likewise found in the same level at La Roche an 
object resembling very closely an Australian churinga.f It is 
an oblong bit of reindeer horn pointed at both ends, one of 
which is perforated. One face bears a pattern composed of 

* Distal, the end not attached to the body. 

f Churinga, a term implying something y sacred or secret. The term is applied 
both to an object and to the quality possessed by it — most frequently used to 
mean one of the sacred stones or sticks, of the Arunta tribe, Australia. 



parallel series of incised lines, some groups being longitudinal 
and some transverse. This piece had been entirely covered by 
a coating of red ocher, prior to the execution of the incised deco- 
ration; it bears a close resemblance to the churinga of the Arunta 
tribe and must in its time have served a purpose similar to that 
served by the esoteric and sacred churinga. 

Prior to 1902, there was found in the rock shelter of La 
Roche-Plate at Saint-Mihiel (Meuse) a decorated bone pendant 
closely resembling the churinga. But the first Magdalenian 
example of what by no serious stretch of the imagination might 
be likened to a churinga is the flat oblong slate pebble incised 
on both faces, which was found in the cave of Pekarna near 
Brno (Moravia) prior to 1882 and was given to Peabody 


With students of the American School of Prehistoric Research at work 

Museum of Yale University in 1930 by Professor Charles 
Schuchert (Fig. 52). 

These specimens resembling the churinga all serve to throw 
light on the significance of cave art. The fact that the female 
of the species in representations of both human and animal forms 
is more frequently met with than the male is fraught with mean- 


ing, for at least one of the important purposes of cave art, 
was to insure perpetuation of the species; it was also to insure 
success in the chase, which meant success in the quest for food. 

Changes in Culture 

At present little is known of Mesolithic art. The two deco- 
rated handles of bone haftings found in 1927-1931 near Athlit 
(Palestine) in deposits of Mesolithic age are reminiscent of 


From the cave of Pekarna near Brno, Czechoslovakia 

Actual size 

paleolithic art. Climatic and faunal changes following the last 
glacial epoch had their effect on man and his culture. New 
blood may also account for some of the change. With the 
domestication of animals and plants there was no longer the 
urge to employ the magic of the hunter. The old cult fell into 
disuse or was gradually transformed. Under the influence of 
animal and plant husbandry, combined with the potter's art, the 
life of the nomad hunter became a thing of the past. Pottery 
and textiles soon became the chief channels for art expression. 
The sun ripened the crops on which both man and beast fed. 
The sun became the symbol of a new cult, which was dominant 
until the beginning of the present era. 

Burial Rites 

Burial of the dead antedates Neolithic times, but was rela- 
tively unimportant until then. The Neolithic races practiced 



both inhumation and incineration. The graves were individual 
as well as communal and consisted not only of simple interment, 
but also of burials under erratic boulders and in natural and 
artificial caves. Two methods of inhumation were practiced: 
full length and flexed so as to bring the hands and knees near the 
chin and the heels close to the hip bones. 

Monuments to the Dead 

An interesting departure was the construction of stone cham- 
bers great and small, as well as complex and simple, and usually 
referred to as dolmens. The dolmen is one type of Megalithic 
monument, and since the whole group of Megalithic monu- 
ments is closely linked with art and religion, they will be dis- 
cussed here. The term dolmen is composed of two Briton 
words, dol meaning table and men meaning stone. 

In its simplest and probably earliest form, the dolmen con- 
sists of three flat stones set on end, so as to form a hollow 
square, and is covered by a stone placed horizontally (hence 
dol, or table). The entrance was sometimes partially closed 
by a smaller stone. As the chamber grew in size, more standing 

The students are from the American School of Prehistoric Research 


stones to enclose it were required, and there developed an ap- 
proach, or alley-way, to it. To cover the enlarged (elongated) 
chamber and alley-way required several table stones. In time 
additions in the way of side chambers appeared. 

As the central chamber expanded beyond where it could be 
covered by a single table-stone or by a series forming a row, 
new methods of construction came into use. The walls were 
built of dry masonry instead of a single series of standing stones, 
while the covering consisted of relatively small stones overlap- 
ping and gradually rising to a peak at the center, the so-called 
corbel vaulting. 

Dolmens of the various types were originally covered by 
means of earth, the more elaborate ones by blankets of earth 
alternating with blankets of small stones (galgal). Some of 
the larger tumuli cover a series of dolmenic chambers, a good 
example being the tumulus of Saint Michel at Carnac in Brit- 

Closely related to the dolmens are the artificial burial caves, 
which in part reproduce the dolmenic plan and detail of orna- 
mentation. Fine examples of artificial burial caves may be seen 
in the valley of the Petit-Morin (Marne). These caves were 
dug in a chalk deposit. A trench led to the entrance, which was 
closed by a stone slab. In some there is but a single chamber; 
others are double, consisting of the chamber proper and an ante- 
chamber of smaller dimensions. Figures cut in low relief have 
been found on the walls of several of these caves. Sepulchral 
accompaniments included axes of flint and jadeite (some still 
retaining their sockets of staghorn), knives, scrapers, arrow- 
heads, bone objects, and ornaments of the latter, including amber 
and turquoise beads. Natural caves were also utilized as burial 
places. In some cases Neolithic burials are superposed on de- 
posits of Paleolithic age. 

Other Monuments 

Among Megalithic monuments are likewise included menhirs, 
cromlechs, and alinements. A single elongated stone set on end 
is a menhir (men, stone, and hir, on end). A series of menhirs 
forming a circle is a cromlech; and a series of menhirs arranged 
in roughly parallel rows is an alinement. The best examples of 


the alinement are in Brittany. The expedition sent out by the 
Roerich Museum, New York City, 1923-1928, reported the 
finding of a series of eight alinements in Tibet. At least one of 
these had an east-west orientation with a cromlech at the west 
end, comparable in these two respects with certain of the aline- 
ments in Brittany — Menec for example. 

In certain regions are to be found effigy menhirs, called in 
French statue-menhirs. These represent in relief certain 
features of the human form or dress, chiefly female, and are 
most numerous in southern France, especially Aveyron, Tarn, 
and Herault. Representations of the human form similar to 
the statue-menhirs have been found cut on the walls of certain 
artificial caves in the department of Marne. 

Megalithic Art and Symbolism 

The engraved signs on Megalithic monuments have been 
the subject of much discussion. With the exception of the ax, 
sometimes hafted and sometimes not, and the serpent, no wholly 
satisfactory determination has as yet been reached. Then there 
is the question of their meaning, which has still to be answered. 
Human representations are extremely rare. Three examples 
are cited by the prehistorians Le Rouzic and Pequart : two of the 
human foot (at Petit Mont and Roch Priol, respectively) and 
another at Mane Lud, all in Morbihan, France. At Mane Lud 
there are four signs, each composed of a cupule surmounting the 
top of a cross recalling some of the petroglyphs* in Spain. 

As to animal representations, the serpent has already been 
mentioned. Pequart and Le Rouzic believe they have found 
the figure of an ox engraved on one of the stones in the dolmen 
of Mane er H'roeck (Morbihan). A partially destroyed figure 
of a quadruped on the under surface of the cover stone, Table 
des Marchands, is thought by Keller and Le Rouzic to be that 
of an ox. These are all the more interesting because of the 
discovery by Keller and Le Rouzic of the bones of an ox sumptu- 
ously buried under the tumulus of Saint-Michel. 

A figure which Pequart and Le Rouzic believe to be a mollusk 
recurs on several of the Megalithic monuments in Brittany, 
notably at Lufang, Pierres Plates, Le Lizo, and Le Rocher. 

* Petroglyph, a prehistoric carving or writing on rock. 


These sites are all near the sea, where one might expect to find 
figures of sea life. 

Among inanimate objects there is no doubt about the ax, and 
little, if any, doubt about the escutcheon or shield. The latter 
is seen perhaps to best advantage in the dolmen of He Longue. 
In some cases, there seems to be a convergence of the mollusk 
motif and the escutcheon or shield motif. Whether these fig- 
ures with mixed attributes are due to the ineptitude of the artist, 
or his ignorance of the origin of the motif he is attempting to 
reproduce, would be difficult to decide. 

The Ax the Most Frequent Symbol 

The sign most frequently represented on Megalithic monu- 
ments is the ax. This sign appears under three forms : the ax 
without hafting, the hafted ax, 
and implements derived from 
the ax. Of these three forms l^-^ Mm— 

the ax without hafting is the | p""— M«g» 

most numerous, occurring thirty- 
three times in the tumulus of 
Gavr'inis, France, alone. Even 

more interesting are the hafted Fig. 54— hafted ax carved on a 

c w u n »• • n stone 

axes, or which Gavr mis like- 

. 1/1 From the dolmen of Gavr'inis, Morbihan 

wise furnishes two examples. A 

, *■ 1/6 actual size 

fine example is to be seen on the , .. _ _, x .„ x . 

r (After De Mortillet) 

under surface of the coverstone 

of the Table des Marchands. A series of eight are on one of 
the stones at Mane er H'roeck. Other examples are found at 
Mane Lud, Mane Kerioned, Petit Mont, Pierres Plates, Er Lan- 
nic, and Kerveresse. Figures of the ax are cut on two stones in 
the dolmen near Gohlitz (Saxony). Figures obviously derived 
from the ax are found at Mane er H'roeck, Manio, Grah Miohl, 
and Penhape. Some of these derived forms, Le Rouzic would 
class as primitive plows. Examples are cited from Mane er 
H'roeck, Kercado, Mane Rutual, and Penhape. 

The crozier was a favorite motif with the artists who deco- 
rated Megalithic monuments. It has been reported from Le 
Moustoir, Le Lizo, Gavr'inis, Mane Rutual, Petit Mont, and 
Kerveresse, all in Morbihan, France. 

Courtesy of the National Museum, Saint-Germain 


With incised figures of the ax and the serpent 



The Sun As a Symbol 

The people of the epoch of the dolmens must have depended 
largely on agriculture and the domestication of animals. One 
would expect to find evidence of a sun cult in connection with 
their monuments. This is precisely what Pequart and Le Rouzic 
believe they have done. In support of this belief, they cite what 
seems to be the sun's disk in the center of the shield-shaped 
figure at the Table des Marchands. They find on one of the 
supporting stones of the dolmen of Mane Lud a like symbol, 
from which radiate straight lines suggesting rays of the sun. 
One of the supports at Tachen Paul bears a small disk sur- 
rounded by a larger one, from which rays extend. The dolmen 
of Petit Mont bears two wheel-shaped solar representations, 
each comprised of a central cupule,* from which lines radiate 
to a circle representing the sun's circumference. In one of these, 
the first attempt at tracing the sun's circumference was faulty; 
the second and last attempt was more successful. Both these 
figures at Petit Mont are veritable wheels, which are so often 
used to represent the sun. Another symbol often associated 
with the sun symbol in various parts of the Old World is that of 
the bark or ship. This symbol is found in the dolmens of 

The question whether there may not be floral representa- 
tions among dolmenic symbols has been raised and answered in 
the affirmative by Keller and Le Rouzic, who believe the series 
of parallel recurved signs on one of the supporting stones of the 
Table des Marchands represent ripening wheat. 

Signs on Megalithic monuments include many, the meaning 
of which is still a mystery — geometric patterns, chevrons, 
spirals, broken and undulating lines, etc. It is hoped that some 
future glyptologistf may be able to decipher these. 

Megalithic builders were active during the latter part of the 
Neolithic period and continued their activities into the Age of 
Metals. Megalithic monuments have a wide geographic dis- 
tribution in the Old World: Abyssinia, Algeria, Egypt, Mada- 

* Cupule, a cup-shaped depression. 

t Glyptologist, one who scientifically studies engravings on stones. 




gascar, Morocco, Sudan, Tripoli, and Tunisia in Africa; China, 
India, Japan, Palestine, Persia, Syria, Russia, Transjordania, 
and Turkey in Asia; and Austria, Belgium, British Isles, Bul- 
garia, Channel Islands, Denmark, France (including Corsica), 
Germany, Holland, Italy (including Malta, Sardinia, and 
Sicily), Norway, Portugal, Russia, Spain (including the Balearic 
Islands), Sweden, and Switzerland in Europe. 

The type of monument known as statue menhir is by no 
means as widely distributed. It is found in at least seven de- 
partments of France, and sparingly in Austria and Italy (includ- 
ing Sardinia). Monuments closely related to the statue men- 
hirs have been found in Oceania (Celebes, Easter Island, and 
Marquesas). Statue menhirs represent both sexes. Dechelette 
believed them to represent gods and goddesses. Others, includ- 
ing Menghin, would class them as images of the dead. 



Language Connects Mind With Mind 

LANGUAGE is a structure by means of which man bridges the 
morass of ignorance. It connects mind with mind, making 
common property of worthwhile thoughts. Ear, eye, vocal 
organs, and even the hand, afford means of communication, and 
in these respects the human brain is more fortunate than that 
of any other animal. The artifice to which we give the name 
language is at the command of the most lowly of living tribes 
or races. There is reason to suppose that it was built up at a 
very early stage to a degree transcending any similar means of 
communication existing among the lower animals. Through it 
the mind was stimulated to further activity and the cerebral 
cortex must have developed accordingly. It would be difficult 
to overestimate the value of language as a factor in human 
evolution. The stage to which fossil races of man developed 
language will never be known. Their varying degrees of apti- 
tude are at least partially reflected by the nature of intracranial 
casts and the osseous attachments for certain muscles. 

Music as Ancient as Language 

Music, like language, had its roots in a prehuman stage. 
Preharmonic music is of two kinds, the unrecorded and the re- 
corded. Prehistoric music is of the unrecorded kind. The 
evolution of the harmonic system of historic time is a field, the 
boundaries of which can best be traced by a technician rather 
than by a prehistorian. It is enough to point out here that 
while as ancient as language, music has been slower in reaching 
a high stage of development. Already in Neolithic times use 
was made of the bone flute. A bone flute with three holes, appar- 
ently one for the mouth and two for the fingers, has been reported 
from the pile village of Concise (Vaud), Switzerland. 



Writing Is an Eye Language 

Writing is eye language as opposed to ear language. It 
began with pictures, a method still in vogue among primitive 
peoples. The next step after the pictograph is the ideograph, 
a symbol representing not a sound but an idea ; it occurs in 
Chinese and in some Egyptian hieroglyphs. The third stage 
is the hieroglyph. Both ideographs and hieroglyphs are forms 
of writing the characters of which bear an essential relationship 
to that which they are intended to represent. They represent 
an earlier stage in the development of writing than alphabets 
and syllabaries, which have passed into the conventionalized 
stage. With the alphabet we have a highly-developed form of 
writing, in which the connection between sound and the character 
employed is conventional and not essential. 

The Beginning of Systematic Writing 

There is reason to believe that paleolithic man had already 
made a beginning toward a system of writing. Symbolism in 
Paleolithic art began to play an important role before the close 
of the Magdalenian epoch. The dotted circle has been found 
at Gourdan and Lourdes. The bone with incised alphabeti- 
form signs from Le Placard (Charente) is another case in 

According to Piette the painted pebbles of the Mesolithic 
period represent a system of cursive writing. He believed that 
traces of at least twelve Mesolithic symbols persisted in later 
times — in Phoenician, archaic Greek, classic Greek, Latin, and 
Lydian. Many of the Spanish Mesolithic petroglyphs might be 
classed as belonging to a fairly advanced stage in the develop- 
ment of writing. With the advent of an alphabet properly so- 
called, one passes from the prehistoric into the realm of the 



Labor Not a Curse 

LABOR is the price we pay for that which we crave but do not 
already have in our possession. It is not a curse, but a 
blessing. Nor is it the lot of man alone, but rather the common 
lot of beings animate. To be animate is to be able to expend 
energy in the form of labor. Lowly forms of life are lowly 
because adjusted to an existence requiring a minimum amount 
of effort. The barnacle, the sea urchin, the oyster are examples. 
The passage from invertebrates to vertebrates and from lower 
vertebrates to higher vertebrates has been achieved at the ex- 
pense of added labor on the part of the advancing generations. 
The parental labor involved in a new generation of humans is 
many fold greater than that in a new generation of mice for 
example. The prolonged period of human infancy has meant 
additional labor for both parents. 

But there is another side to the problem of human labor, 
due to man's complex and artificial life. Man has not been 
content to remain Nature's child. Every step in the advance- 
ment of civilization has meant added labor. Paleolithic man 
was content with a minimum of artificial aids to existence. He 
began with the ready-to-hand tools furnished by nature ; his next 
step was to supplement the natural supply by manufacture. 
When his supply of surface flint ran short, he learned how to 
mine for and to quarry flint. He also learned to mine for salt 
and to put more labor into his places of abode. 

Division of Labor 

In the organization of human society one of the first steps 
was the division of labor into man's work and woman's work. 
With the multiplication of the arts and crafts there were still 
further divisions, making it possible for the race to profit by 



skilled labor in its incipient stages. A final step was the division 
of labor into muscular, or manual, and cerebral, or mental. 

Grinding Grain — Woman's Work 

Milling stones dating from the Neolithic period are abundant 
in Swiss pile villages as well as in village sites on land. Grind- 
ing the grain was apparently woman's work, since in the great 
Neolithic cemetery near Worms the milling stones are associated 
with female burials. Loaves of bread made apparently with- 
out the use of yeast have been found in Neolithic pile villages. 


Agriculture came as a natural corollary of the domestication 
of animals and plants. The digging stick was the first tool for 
cultivating the soil; it was supplemented by spades and hoes of 
bone and stone, and finally by the plow. Hahn believes that 
plows were first drawn by women and later by oxen. 

The methods of threshing must have been simple, probably 
by means of the flail, which is still in use. In Spain they use the 
trillo, which consists of a series of boards fastened together 
and armed with flints. The driver stands on the trillo, which is 
dragged by an ox or a horse. The same type of thresher, called 
the djaroucha, is still employed in Tunisia. 

Flax the Chief Textile Material 

Flax was the principal Neolithic textile material. Wooden 
instruments for breaking and wooden combs for combing flax 
have been reported from a number of Swiss pile-village stations. 
Hemp was unknown. 


The Neolithic races were the first to carry out mining opera- 
tions on a large scale. Their activity in this line was confined 
largely to the mining of flint. They had learned that freshly 
quarried flint, before losing its quarry water, is more easily 
worked than dead surface flint. Two general systems of 
mining were developed : ( 1 ) the open cast or trench method, 
and (2) the shaft and gallery method. Shafts were often sunk 
to a considerable depth before a layer of flint of the desired 


quality was encountered. With the development of the mining 
industry, flint became more and more an article of commerce. 

Flint Mining an Important Industry 

Evidence that mining for flint became an important industry 
during the Neolithic period, is found in England (Grime's 
Graves, Cissbury, etc.), France, Belgium (Spiennes, Strepy, 
Obourg), Holland (Sainte-Gertrude), Sweden, Spain, Portugal, 
Italy, and Sicily. Flint mining was not confined to Europe; it 
was practically worldwide. The industry was practiced on a 
grand scale in Egypt, especially at Wady el Sheikh. The princi- 
pal tools used were the deerhorn pick and the flint pick. Mining 
for flint did not cease wholly after the introduction of metals. 
It persisted as long as there was industrial need for flint of good 
quality. The flint knapper's* trade still exists at Brandon 
(Suffolk), in France, and elsewhere. 

Salt Mining 

Prehistoric mining was primarily for three commodities: 
flint, salt, and metals. The deerhorn pick, so useful to the 
Neolithic miner of flint, continued to be employed by miners 
of the Bronze Age. Traces of prehistoric mining for salt have 
been found in the Austrian Salzkammergut at Hallstatt and at 
Diirrnberg near Hallein; at Langacker near Reichenhall, south- 
ern Bavaria; at Kulpe, southern Caucassus; and elsewhere. 
Salt was probably won from salt springs and sea water at least 
as early as Neolithic times. The earliest datable traces of 
mining for salt belong to the Bronze Age. There is evidence 
that salt was mined at Hallstatt from near the end of the Bronze 
Age without a break until the middle of the Roman period. Salt 
was the chief article of commerce in that region. 

Ore Mining Begins in the Bronze Age 

Beginning with the Bronze Age, the principal mining opera- 
tions were for ores. Traces of these operations have been 
located in England, Ireland, France, Spain, Austria, etc. 
Bronze Age mining was carried on by means of open cast, by 

* Knapper, one who shapes flints for gunlocks. 


regular shafts, and by underground galleries. Where neces- 
sary, the walls of the shafts and galleries were strengthened by 
means of props. The ore in copper mines was broken and 
washed before removal to the surface. Ladders were made by 
notching tree trunks, and the ore was carried up in leather sacks. 
The smelting took place near the shafts and near streams. There 
was a depression on the floor of the oven in which the molten 
metal accumulated. 

Many localities in western Asia have furnished remains of 
early iron manufacture. Iron ores were extensively worked in 
northern Persia at Persepolis and in the Karadagh district. As 
early as the tenth century B.C., iron mines were being worked 
in southern India. The western provinces of China are rich 
in iron ores. 



THE dog, hog, ox, sheep, and goat were all found in the 
lowest archeological level at Auvernier pile village on Lake 
Neuchatel. Milk and its products were made use of in Neo- 
lithic times. The remains of at least seventy species of animals 
occur in Neolithic lake dwellings; some of these were domesti- 
cated, others were not. There is no convincing proof that the 
horse was domesticated in Neolithic times. However, with the 
Bronze Age, the presence of bridle bits and harness trappings 
no longer leaves any doubt on that subject. Remains of the ox 
and red deer are especially abundant. Almost all animals may 
be tamed and some may be domesticated. The domestication 
of animals has obviously had several independent centers of 

The dog was apparently the first animal to be domesticated. 
The dog is probably a modification of the wolf (canis lupus). 
This species is the same in Europe, Asia, and America. The 
Egyptian dog, the Peruvian dog, and the Australian dingo, ac- 
cording to G. S. Miller of the United States National Museum, 
all came from the same stock. 

One of the far-reaching results of the domestication of ani- 
mals was the use of certain genera, especially the horse and ox, 
as beasts of burden. Both the horse and ox became draft ani- 
mals as early as the Bronze Age, before the close of which the 
horse was also employed as a mount. Civilization is measured 
roughly by the draft man makes on raw materials; to exploit and 
transport these requires the expenditure of labor. Down to 
about the beginning of the Bronze Age, the only kind of labor 
man knew how to exploit was human; the demand for it led to 
human slavery. The commandeering of the horse and ox as 
beasts of burden relieved the situation and eventually was a 
powerful factor in doing away with human slavery, especially 



after the introduction of improved methods of applying animal 
motive force to the load went into effect about the tenth cen- 
tury A.D. 

By the domestication of animals and plants man was not 
only the gainer in his quest for food, but also was the gainer in 
other ways. The dog was for companionship and protection. 
Thus it was also in the plant world. Flax, for example, was 
grown to supply raw materials for textiles. (See page 95.) 




Man Can Carry More Than His Own Weight 

HE transportation of material things is not peculiar to 
modern man. From the beginning he was accustomed to 
carrying more than his own weight. In proportion to his size 
and strength he is physically well fitted to sustain a load in his 
hands, on his back, or on his head. His hands are also admir- 
ably adapted to dragging long and rolling round or cylindrical 
objects. He observed that certain materials would not only float 
on water but would also carry a load in addition to their own 
weight. The passage from a log to a dugout was a step taken 
certainly as early as the Neolithic period. With the domestica- 
tion of animals, transport by land developed rapidly. At about 
this time there entered into the transportation complex a new 
and dominant factor, the wheel. With the increase of transport 
facilities by both land and water, commerce flourished on a scale 
hitherto undreamed of. 

The Invention of the Wheel 

The wheel is a Neolithic invention but its use was extremely 
limited until after the discovery of metals. The efficiency of 
the wheel is contingent on fixed lines of travel and these were 
a matter of slow growth. National and international commer- 
cial and intellectual contact are inseparably linked with the 
evolution of wheeled vehicles and routes of travel. Some 
ancient routes of travel are still visible through tracks left by 
wheeled vehicles of the time. 

Our universal railway gauge is 4 feet 8.5 inches. Hardcastle 
has noted that this is exactly the width between the ancient wheel 
tracks at Syracuse which date from 400 B.C. and those at Girgenti 
which are somewhat older. The same is true of the ancient 
wheel tracks at Viterbo and on the island of Malta. 



The prehistoric ancestor who first made practical use of the 
principle of the wheel has made all subsequent generations his 
debtors. The use of the wheel probably spread from a single 
center somewhere in the Old World; it was unknown in the 
New World prior to the time of Columbus. The idea apparently 
developed from either the disk or the cylinder — a spindle whorl 
or a section of a tree trunk. 

Transport by the sled antedated that by the wheel, which 
did not become effective until the appearance of the non-rotating 
axle tree supported by the wheel and in turn supporting the load. 
This mechanism is said to have been in use by the Chinese as 
early as 2697 B.C. A method of making the wheel light came 
with the first use of spokes, but this change did not take place 
prior to the use of the metal tire. Until this stage transport 
by means of wheeled vehicles was limited indeed. 

Prehistoric records bearing on the evolution of the wheel are 
very sparse due in part at least to the perishable nature of the 
material employed. Figures of the wheel and of wheeled 
vehicles are not a safe guide; they are inextricably mingled with 
the mythology and symbolism of the time, especially with the 
cult of the sun. The wheel, independent of the vehicle of which 
it might have been a part, was a favorite ornamental motif. 



Commerce First Tempts, Then Rewards 

If LANGUAGE and writing have been the means of ministering 
to the growing needs of the mind, commerce in like manner 
has done its share toward ministering to the ever expanding 
needs of the body. Commerce first tempts, then rewards. If it 
tends to create in man a taste for the hitherto unknown, it is 
likewise the medium through which the new taste can be satisfied. 
The sense of possession is older than the human race. There 
are three ways of obtaining that which belongs to another; 
force, stealth, and exchange. A gift is a species of exchange. 
Force and stealth were no doubt practiced in Paleolithic times. 
Whether exchange of goods had reached a stage where it might 
be called commerce is highly doubtful. Commerce within a 
given culture area was certainly known in Neolithic times; there 
may have been also the beginnings of commerce between one 
culture area and another, but the evidence for this is sparse and 
not of a wholly convincing nature. 

Flint as an Exchange Commodity 

Flint was mined on a relatively large scale during the Neo- 
lithic period. This fact alone presupposes an exchange of this 
commodity for another. Flint from the quarries of Grand- 
Pressigny (Indre-et-Loire) can be traced as an article of ex- 
change because of its peculiar beeswax color. It found its way 
into various parts of France, Belgium, and even Switzerland and 

Amber Valuable and Important 

Amber also played an important part in Neolithic commerce. 
Amber is a fossil resin; it occurs in many varieties and colors 
and has a wide geographic distribution. It is perhaps most abun- 



dant in the region of the Baltic Sea and on the west coast of the 
peninsula of Jutland, Denmark. It was a much prized posses- 
sion of prehistoric peoples and is still widely used as an orna- 
ment, so much so that the manufacture of amber is at present 
an important industry, especially in Germany. Amber was 
known to the Paleolithic races, since it occurs, although spar- 
ingly, in certain caves of Moravia, Lower Austria (Gudenus), 
Pyrenees, and Spain (Altamira). 

Amber has not been reported in association with Mesolithic 
culture, but was extensively employed during the Neolithic 
period as evidenced by the finds from Schwarzort (on the 
Kurische Nehrung north of Konigsberg and near Memel). 
Enormous quantities of amber objects as well as crude amber 
were found here about 1850. The worked pieces include: cylin- 
drical beads, buttons with V-shaped holes, axes, rings, disks, 
human figurines, etc. 

After East Prussia, the peninsula of Jutland has yielded 
more Neolithic amber than any other region. Here many 
hoards of amber in both peat bog and field have been found. 
One find at Laesten near Randers included some 4000 pieces. 
In Zealand, the giant dolmens have yielded most of the amber 
thus far discovered. Amber finds in Sweden come mainly from 
passage graves and the latest Megalithic stone cists. 

Neolithic amber objects are found in northern Germany from 
Westphalia and Hannover in the west to East Prussia; they are 
also found in Poland and Russia. They occur in England, 
France, and Switzerland. 

In southern Europe amber occurs for the first time in the 
Bronze Age. At Hallstatt during the Iron Age it was evidently 
obtained through trade in exchange for salt. It occurs less fre- 
quently in sites dating from the epoch of La Tene. Traffic in 
amber between northern and southern Europe was by way of 
the Elbe, the Vistula, and other water courses. 

Sources of Salt Supply 

Continental sources of salt supply were first worked on a 
commercial basis during the Iron Age. Among the important 
centers of inland salt production there should be mentioned the 
Salzkammergut in Austria, Lorraine in France, and in Thuring- 


en north of Jena. Waters charged with salt were made to 
trickle over bars of baked clay, beneath which fire was kept 
burning. The salt crystalized on the heated bars as the water 

Metals the Greatest Stimulus to Commerce 

The greatest of all stimuli to commerce came with the intro- 
duction of metals. With the spread of the knowledge that a 
small percentage of tin added to copper made an alloy more 
useful than copper alone, there was an increased demand on the 
chief sources of tin supply in Spain and later in Cornwall. 
Copper was not so rare, but it also became an object of barter. 
Gold from County Wicklow, Ireland, was given in exchange for 
copper, tin, and bronze. With the coming of the Iron Age and 
the development of transportation facilities by land and water, 
commerce played an increasingly important role in cultural 

Commerce Increases Culture 

What the circulatory system is to the organism, commerce is 
to the community of organisms in a given culture area. Com- 
merce is also the circulatory system for the community of cul- 
ture areas now covering the earth's surface. While it has added 
immeasurably to man's bodily comfort, it has contributed in equal 
degree to his intellectual advancement by giving him more time 
to think and more to think about. In its train, sources of 
wealth for individual and community have arisen, because it 
has meant not only an exchange of goods but also an interchange 
of ideas. It also led to new and improved media of exchange 
as well as to methods of measuring and weighing. 

How and Where Treasures Were Stored 

The invention of locks and keys made it possible to store 
possessions in safety, and gradually replaced the antiquated 
method of secreting valuables as hoards or caches, a system that 
had been in vogue since Paleolithic times and is sometimes re- 
sorted to even in our era. Unfortunately for their one-time 
owners but fortunately for us, the former often were unable to 
find their caches or else forgot to reveal the location of the same 


to their immediate successors. Many of these prehistoric caches 
have been uncovered in historic time to the enrichment of our 
knowledge of prehistory, and many more will be recovered in 
the future. 

Hoards or caches of valuable objects date from every age 
beginning at least as far back as the Paleolithic period. A good 
example of a Paleolithic hoard is the one found at Volgu 
(Saone-et-Loire) consisting of a series of rare and beautifully 
chipped flint laurel-leaf points belonging to the Solutrean epoch. 
Hoards may be classified as: (1) treasure trove; (2) votive 
objects; (3) stores of a peripatetic merchant; (4) workshop and 
foundry materials. The caches were often made to meet a sud- 
den emergency, or for the sake of convenience. Most of the 
metal objects dating from the Bronze Age have been found in 
hoards or caches. In France alone some 750 Bronze-Age hoards 
have come to light — 101 in the department of Finistere. Over 
half of the entire number date from Bronze Age IV, the best and 
last epoch of the Bronze Age. In four of the hoards gold was 
found associated with bronze objects. In seventy cases, the 
hoards were placed in clay vessels; in three cases bronze vases 
held the hoards. 



Disease is as old as life. Man in his earliest stages was no 
exception to the rule. Means of combating this enemy 
must have been one of his early preoccupations. Its causes, its 
meaning were mysteries to him. Magic was man's handy 
weapon with which to fight disease once he was attacked, as well 
as to render him immune from attack. Magic had its priest in 
the medicine man. 

Prehistoric Diseases 

Prehistoric evidence bearing on disease and the healing art 
is limited to skeletal remains including teeth. Human skeletal 
remains dating from the 
Paleolithic period are 
rare; those from the 
Mesolithic and Neolithic 
are much more numerous. 
These show that prehis- 
toric man suffered from 
diseases which affect 
bones and teeth — caries, 
periostitis, arthritis, ne- 
crosis, osteoma, etc. 

Surgery Practiced in 
Neolithic Times 

As far back as Neo- 
lithic times man practiced 
surgery with a consider- 
able degree of skill and 
success. That the Neo- 
lithic surgeon had mas- 
tered the operation on 


From a photograph by the author 



the human skull known as trepanation, there is abundant proof. 
Whether this operation first began as an attempt to allay mental 
troubles or to relieve depressed fractures it would be difficult 
to say. There is convincing evidence that depressed fractures 
were often successfully relieved. Trepanation was also resorted 
to where there is no visible evidence of a prior depressed frac- 
ture. A prehistoric Peruvian skull bearing five trepanations, all 
of which had healed, is a remarkable case in point; whether any 
one or all of these gave- relief to the patient there is no means 
of telling. Amulets in the form of disks cut from human crania 
were worn obviously for their curative or preventive qualities. 

The Fire Cure 

The properties of fire as a means of healing were invoked in 
prehistoric as well as in historic time. Among the Pennsylvania 
Germans erysipelas is thought to be cured by fire, which is car- 
ried three times around the patient and with each round the 
attendant saying, "Tame fire, take away wild fire." The Chero- 
kees of North Carolina, used fire in the treatment of neuralgia. 
Fire cures were practiced by the fire shamans of the Tewa In- 
dians and the custom was in vogue among the Queres until re- 
cently. In the process of healing they sang a ritual song, waved 
flaming branches of grass to the six regions, bit off pieces of 
grass, chewed them, and spat in the patient's face. 

The Dyaks of Borneo treat fever and other diseases by 
means of a healing torch, which is said to be made of fifty differ- 
ent kinds of wood. The doctor ignites the torch and the patient 
inhales the smoke. Among the Yorchans of northern Siberia, a 
fire kindled by rubbing two sticks together plays an important 
role as a prophylactic against infections and all kinds of diseases. 



The textile art is one of Neolithic man's many contributions 
to cultural evolution. It includes the making of baskets, 
braiding, knitting, netting, spinning, weaving, and embroidery. 
Prehistoric examples of the textile art are rare because of the 
perishable nature of the materials employed. The best pre- 
served specimens are from pile villages. Examples of both 
coiled and twined basketry have been found at Wangen on Lake 

The step from braiding to weaving was made easy by the 
invention of the loom. The Neolithic loom of central and 
western Europe was probably not unlike extant figures of Greek 
looms dating from 500 B.C. Loom weights and spindle whorls, 
also wooden crochet needles, have been recovered. Good ex- 
amples of taffeta and twill were found in the Neolithic pile vil- 
lage of Robenhausen. During Neolithic times flax and wool 
were the chief materials used in weaving. 

Textiles and pottery are both products of Neolithic culture. 
If one antedated the other it would be difficult to say which one 
is the older. Each is admirably adapted to serve both utilitarian 
and artistic purposes. On account of its fragile nature, pottery 
requires a more sedentary mode of life, to which it ministers as 
a containing vessel especially for liquids and for use in the 
preparation, storing, and cooking of foods. It also served to 
hold the ashes of the dead or as a repository for offerings to the 

The Neolithic potter was no chemist. Fortunately for him 
clay often contains materials that serve as tempering materials. 
He learned that some clays were better adapted to his purposes 
than others and finally learned to add tempering materials 
where these were lacking. 

The potter began by shaping a bit of paste into a disk for 



the base. After placing this base on a flat surface the walls 
were carried up by adding strips of clay. With the potter's 
wet hands and the aid of simple finishing tools of wood, horn, 
bone, shell, etc., the walls were dressed. To the completed body 
were added handles, spouts, and relief ornaments. 

Ceramic art received a new impetus with the coming of the 
potter's wheel, which appeared first in the Orient. It was known 
in Egypt as early as 3000 B.C., and later spread throughout the 
Mediterranean region, but did not reach north of the Alps until 
the epoch of La Tene. In parts of Germany most of the pot- 
tery continued to be made by hand as late as the Merovingian 

The four prime operations in the making of a pottery vessel 
are (1) the shaping process, (2) drying, (3) heating to remove 
the water of constitution, and (4) baking. Pottery may be baked 
in the open without a pit or furnace and without any other 
envelope than the fuel. Pits began to be used before the close 
of the Neolithic period. The next step came with the use of 
the oven or furnace. 

At Montlingen on the Rhine southeast of St. Gallen, Bessler 
uncovered an elaborate oven for baking pottery, also tools for 
making incised decorations on pottery. This oven dates from 
the Bronze Age. 

Although pottery is fragile, pottery fragments are practically 
imperishable. It is one of the most common products of Neo- 
lithic and later prehistoric cultures. For these reasons pottery 
types have come to serve an important role in prehistoric ter- 
minology. We thus speak of the bell-beaker folk, the bell- 
shaped beaker being a well known ceramic form belonging to the 
latter part of the Neolithic period. Sometimes the term is de- 
rived from the ornamentation of the vessel rather than the 
form. There is, for example, the string motif (Schnurkeramik) 
and the band motif (Bandkeramik) , both occurring in the Neo- 
lithic period. Again to a certain type of pottery characteristic 
of a given culture there is given the name of a typical station 
where the type is found and from which it might have spread. 
An example is the Rossen type from Rossen, a Neolithic ceme- 
tery in Saxony, with its two related types: Michelsberg (south- 
west Germany) and Schussenried (southern Germany). An 

Courtesy of the Berlin Museum fiir Volkerkunde 


• Fig. 59— HOUSE URNS 
1, 2, 3, from Aschersleben, Saxony; 4, from Luggendorf, Brandenburg; Hallstatt epoch 




early Bronze Age culture is named for the village of Aunjetitz, 
near Prague, with its distinctive ceramic types. 

To a pottery type belonging to the late Bronze Age is given 

Courtesy of the Berlin Museum fur Volkerkunde 


With a fine example of the Rossen type of pottery at the hip bone 

the name Lausitz for the finds made at Neiderlausitz (central 
Europe). The Lausitz culture is represented by the urn burials 
of eastern Germany, western Poland, Bohemia, Moravia, and 
Austria — approximately the same territory which was earlier 
covered by the Aunjetitz culture. 

Painted pottery appeared in the Mediterranean region and 
in the lower Danube during the Neolithic period. It appeared 
in Germany with the beginning of the Hallstatt epoch, and was 
exceedingly rare in France until the epoch of La Tene. Before 
the close of this epoch, the potter's wheel had become known 
throughout the Celtic world. 

A curious development in ceramic form and plastic decora- 
tion is to be noted in the so-called house urns and face urns. 
House urns belong to the Bronze and Iron ages and are dis- 
tributed over a wide area — Egypt, western Asia, Italy, Greece, 
Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, 
and in far-off Japan. The house shape symbolizes the home of 
the dead. The face urns characterize an early Iron Age culture 
in eastern Germany and Poland. They are found in stone cist 
graves and feature especially the human nose, ears, and eyes. 
The ears are often pierced and are provided with earrings. (See 
Figure 40.) 



An Accidental Discovery 

Discoveries are often by accident. The reduction of metals 
from their ores is one of the greatest discoveries of all 
time and probably belongs in this class. Prehistoric man's atten- 
tion was first attracted to metals that sometimes occur in the 
native state independent of the ores. Nuggets of gold belong 
in this class and these no doubt were among the first to attract 
man's attention. Copper likewise occurs in the native state 
and was much better adapted to Stone Age requirements than 
was gold. Native iron occurs in the form of meteorites and also 
as telluric iron. Both forms are rare. There never would have 
been an Age of Metals if man had not discovered the secret of 
reducing metals from their ores. 

The First Metallurgical Furnace 

The camp fire was apparently the first metallurgical furnace. 
It might easily occur that a lump of copper carbonate would be 
chosen as one of the stones in the circle surrounding a hearth. 
It might become embedded in the embers and thereby be reduced 
to metal. This would attract the attention of primitive man and 
experimentation would disclose its useful properties. 

The Discovery of Alloys 

Copper ores are often associated with ores of antimony, 
arsenic, nickel, silver, or tin. The reduction of these ores would 
produce a natural or accidental alloy which is superior to pure 
copper. An alloy of copper and tin produces bronze. In Eng- 
land where copper and tin ores were associated, bronze was pro- 
duced as an accidental alloy. In time man learned how to pro- 
duce an artificial alloy of copper and tin in the proportion of 
about ten parts copper to one of tin. 



In Egypt as well as In Mesopotamia, copper was in use some 
4000 or 5000 years B.C. Copper mines on the peninsula of 
Sinai were worked as early as 3733 B.C. and perhaps earlier. 
The lowest stratum at Troy, dating from 3000 to 2500 B.C., 
yielded objects of copper. The first use of copper in Hungary 
dates from about 2000 B.C. 

The earliest production in Europe of copper from its ores 
was probably in Cyprus, where one sees vast piles of ancient 
slag. The mines of southern Spain, especially at Rio Tinto, are 
very old. The Mitterberg Alp in the Austrian Tyrol was an 
important center of prehistoric mining for copper. 

Casting of Metals Paves Way to Modern Era 

After the reduction of metals from their ores, the next great 
forward step was the discovery of processes of casting metals. 
The development of these processes has had a profound bearing 
on both art and industry and has paved the way to the era in 
which we live. 


Prepared by the Author 

OUR EARLY ANCESTORS— Miles C. Burkitt Macmillan 

A brief and competent summary of the Neolithic Cultures of Northwestern Europe. 

THE BRONZE AGE— V. Gordon Childe Macmillan 

A condensed description of the cultures of the Bronze Age of Western Europe, designed 
to supplement Burkitt's Our Early Ancestors. 


A work dealing with the Neolithic and Bronze prehistoric cultures of Europe and the 

Near East. It is especially valuable in its exposition of the diffusion of Eastern cultures 
to Western and Northern Europe through the Danubian area. 

UP FROM THE APE— Earnest Albert Hooton Macmillan 

This work deals with the physical evolution of man from the primates, the skeletal 
characteristics of fossil man, and the anatomical and physiological features of con- 
temporary races. It is especially thorough in its discussion of man's relation to the 
anthropoid apes and the principles of racial classification. 


A volume supplementary to the author's great work on the Antiquity of Man. The 
present work brings up to date the discussion of the geological provenience, skeletal 
characters, and phylogenetic relationships of fossil human types. A thoroughly readable 
book by a great authority. 

HUMAN ORIGINS — George Grant MacCurdy _ Applbton 

A comprehensive work in two volumes treating the origin of man and the development 

of his cultures from the earliest times down to the beginning of recorded history. The 
discussion of the industries and chronology of the Paleolithic age is especially full and 

unusually well documented. The illustrations are numerous and of superior quality. 

The author is conservative and judicious in dealing with debatable theories and finds of 
questionable authenticity. 

FOSSIL MAN IN SPAIN— Hugo Obermaier Yale 

The author is one of the greatest authorities on the geology and archeology of the 
Paleolithic periods. While the work deals primarily with Spain during the Paleolithic 
periods, it includes also a most illuminating summary of the sequence of industries and 
human types in other Old World areas. The theories of cultural connections and early 
migrations are especially valuable. 

THE CORRIDORS OF TIME— Harold Peake and Herbert John Fleure Yale 

A series of eight small volumes dealing with prehistoric man, his cultures, and migrations. 
The work is well written by competent authorities — one a well known archeologist and 
the other a specialist in geography and physical anthropology. The titles of these volumes 
are: I, Apes and Men; II, Hunters and Artists; III, Peasants and Potters; IV, Priests 
and Kings: V, The Steppe and the Sown; VI, The Way of the Sea; VII, Merchant 
Venturers in Bronze; VIII, Men of the Sword. 

THE EVOLUTION OF MAN— G. Elliot Smith Oxford 

A volume of miscellaneous essays on human evolution by the foremost student of the 
morphology of the brain. The author's theories of the functional modifications in brains 
of lower primates, leading ultimately to the development of anthropoid and human types, 
are presented in his characteristically vigorous style. 


A deservedly popular discussion of the Eolithic, Paleolithic, and Transitional industries 
and types of man, together with attempts to trace relationships of certain fossil types of 
man to some modern primitive peoples. These theories are not universally accepted. 

Appleton — D. Appleton & Company, 29-35 West 32nd Street, New York, N. Y. 
Knopf— Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 730 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 
Macmillan — The Macmillan Company, 60 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 
Norton — W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 70 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 
Oxford — Oxford University Press, 114 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 
Yale — Yale University Press, 143 Elm Street, New Haven, Connecticut. 



[Only those terms are defined in this glossary which either are not explained in 
the text or are explained once and are used again several pages away from the 

Acheulian : third epoch of the Lower Paleolithic period ; named from Saint - 

Acheul (Somme), France. 
Alinement : a row of menhirs. 
Archeozoic era : the first 500 million years after the earth began to bear a crust ; 

from 1500 to 1000 million years ago. 
Artifact : a product of human workmanship, especially of aboriginal man. 
Asturian : name given to a culture, post-Azilian and pre-Neolithic in age, which 

occurs typically in the province of Asturias, northern Spain. 
Aurignacian : first epoch of the Upper Paleolithic period ; named from Aurignac 

(Haute-Garonne), France. 
Azilian : the epoch of transition from the Paleolithic period to the Neolithic 

period; named from Mas d'Azil (Ariege), France. 
Baton : a prepared horn of reindeer or stag with one or more perforations and 

generally ornamented with engravings or with carvings in the round. 
Beaker : a deep, open-mouthed vessel with a projecting lip, resembling a beak, 

for pouring. 
Bilateral : arranged upon two sides. 
Bronze Age : the second of the three culture ages of prehistoric man ; it was 

characterized by the widespread use of bronze implements, ornaments, etc. 
Campignian : final stage of the Mesolithic period; named from Campigny (Seine- 

Inferieure), France. 
Cenozoic era : the present geologic age ; it began about 60 million years ago. 
Chalcolithic : transition from Stone Age to Bronze Age, during which copper 

and not bronze was used ; same as Eneolithic. 
Chariot burials : burials of important personages where chariots are interred 

with their owners. 
Chellean : the second epoch of the Lower Paleolithic period ; named from Chelles 

(Seine-et-Marne), France. 
Chevron : two broad bands meeting at an angle. 
Cist: a type of Neolithic burial — a chest, the prototype of the coffin. 
Clactonian : a Paleolithic phase of culture; named from Clacton-on-Sea (Essex), 

Cranium : the skull of a vertebrate animal ; in a more technical sense that part 

of the skull which encloses the brain. 
Crochet : a hook. 
Dolmen : an ancient sepulchral monument of unhewn stones set on end or on 

edge, so as to form a chamber, and covered with one or several stones. 
Eneolithic : the transition stage between the Neolithic period and the Bronze Age. 
Eocene : the first epoch of the Cenozoic era. 
Eolithic : the dawn (Greek, cos) stage of the Stone Age. 
Epi-Paleolithic : that which immediately follows the Paleolithic and precedes the 

Neolithic ; same as Mesolithic. 
Erratic boulder : a boulder transported from its original site by natural agencies. 
Femur : the thigh bone. 

Fibula (plural, fibulae) : an ornamental brooch of the type of a safety-pin. 
Friable : easily crumbled or reduced to a powder. 
Graver : a flint implement with beveled point for working in bone, ivory, and 

reindeer horn. 



Haft: that part of an instrument taken into the hand — usually the hilt of a knife. 

sword, or dagger ; to furnish with a haft. 
Incineration : cremation. 

Inhumation : burial of the body unchanged by cremation. 

Iron Age : the third of the three culture ages of prehistoric man ; it was character- 
ized by the coming into general -use of that metal. 
Kitchen midden : a mound composed of kitchen refuse from ancient dwellings ; 

a shell heap. 
Levalloisian : a phase of the Paleolithic period ; named from Levallois-Perret, 

a suburb of Paris. 
Lithic : of or pertaining to stone. 
Loess : extensive deposits of fine-grained, even-textured materials, yellowish-brown 

in color; generally of eolian origin. 
Lower: when used before the name of a geologic period, designates the earlier 

stage of that period ; this earlier stage is so called because the strata are nor- 
mally below those of a later formation; in contrast the adjective Upper is used. 

to designate the later stages of the same period. 
Magdalenian : the closing epoch of the Upper Paleolithic period ; named from 

the ruins of La Madeleine (Dordogne), France. 
Maglemosean : the Scandinavian equivalent of Azilian, the epoch of transition 

from the Paleolithic period to the Neolithic period. 
Meander motif : any winding pattern, so called from the river Meander. 
Megalithic : pertaining to Neolithic and Bronze-Age monuments composed of 

large stones. 
Mesolithic : the stage of culture intermediate between Paleolithic and Neolithic ; 

also called Epi-Paleolithic. 
Mesozoic era : the fourth division of time since the earth began to bear a crust ; 

it lasted 110 million years — from 170 to 60 million years ago. 
Microlith : a diminutive stone tool occurring in various culture levels from the 

Aurignacian to the Tardenoisian inclusive. 
Miocene: the third epoch of the Cenozoic era. 
Mousterian : the epoch between the Lower and the Upper Paleolithic periods ; 

named from Le Moustier (Dordogne), France. 
Neolithic : the last period of the Stone Age ; the New Stone Age. 
Occipital : of or pertaining to back part of the head or skull. 
Oligocene : the second epoch of the Cenozoic era. 
Paleolithic : the Old Stone Age, corresponding approximately to the Pleistocene 

Paleozoic era : the third division of time since the earth began to bear a crust ; it 

lasted 330 million years — from 500 to 170 million years ago. 
Pleistocene : the fifth and latest epoch of the Cenozoic era. 
Pliocene : the fourth epoch of the Cenozoic era. 
Point : an implement pointed at one end and used for puncturing. 
Poll: the end of a tool opposite the point or the blade. 
Prehistoric : of, pertaining to, or existing in, the period before written history 

Proterozoic era: the second 500 million years after the earth began to bear a 

crust ; from 1000 to 500 million years ago. 
Pyrites: a sulphid of iron or of copper; pyrites was used in conjunction with flint 

for striking fire as early as the Magdalenian epoch. _ 
Riss : the name (1) of a small river in the Alpine foothills; (2) of the third 

glacial epoch. 
Rock shelter : any mass of rock with an overhang, which was or might have been 

used as a shelter. 
Scraper : a flint flake with a margin, retouched on the dorsal face and useful for 

scraping, cutting, and cleaning purposes. 
Scratcher : a slender blade-like flint retouched on the dorsal face at one end. 
Sepulture : a place of burial, a grave. 
Serpentiform : snakelike in form. 
Slip: potter's clay in a very liquid state, used for the decoration of ceramic ware, 

or as a cement for handles and other applied parts. 


Solutrean : next to the last epoch of the Paleolithic period ; named from Solutre 

( Saone-et-Loire ) , France. 
Spokes have: a notched scraper; a tool that could be used in shaping spokes. 
Stereoscopic image: the blending into one image of two pictures of an object seen 

from slightly different points of view. 
Stone Age : the first of the three culture ages of prehistoric man ; it was character- 
ized by the widespread use of stone implements. It was subdivided into three 

periods, Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic ; sometimes divided Old Stone 

Age and New Stone Age. 
Stylistic : conventional, opposed to realistic. 
Tardenosian : the final stage in the transition from the Paleolithic period to the 

Neolithic period; named from Fere-en-Tardenois (Aisne), France. 
Tertiary : the third grand division of geologic time, following the Mesozoic and 

preceding the Pleistocene or Quaternary; the early part of the Cenozoic era. 
Torque : a neck ornament of twisted wire. 
Trepanation : a surgical operation which consists in removing a portion of the 

osseous envelope of the brain. 
Triskele: a symbol consisting of three human legs bent at the knee and joined 

at the thigh. 
Tubercles : small, knoblike prominences. 

Tumulus (plural, tumuli) : an artificial mound, usually a place of burial. 
Unilateral: being on but one side. 
Upper : see Lower. 
Wurm : the name (1) of a small river in the Alpine foothills; (2) of the fourth 

glacial epoch. 



Acheulian (a-shu'li-an) culture: char- 
acter of, 48; description of 50; habi- 
tations, 96; horizon at Saint- Acheul, 
47* ; time of, 45 

Agram (now Zagreb), Yugoslavia, 27 

Agriculture, 1 '6 

Alinements, 117 

Alloys, 143 

Altamira (al"ta-me'ra), Spain: fres- 
coes at, 54, 59 

Amber : in commerce, 133 ; in Hallstatt 
culture, 78, 81; in prehistoric jewelry, 

Amethyst : in prehistoric jewelry, 102 

Amphibians, 1 

Amulets, 89 

Andersson, Johan Gunnar (1874- ), 
a Swedish geologist : discoveries of, 

Andirons, 86 

Angiosperms (an'ji-6-spurms), 1 

Animals: appear on earth, 1, 4; domes- 
tication of, 66, 129; favored for amu- 
lets, 90; models for cave artists, 111 

Anklets: in Hallstatt culture, 78; of the 
Bronze Age, 102 

Antelope in Cro-Magnon art, 94 

Anthropoidea (an"thro-poi'de-a), 6, 15 

Apes: fossil, 13; old world, 7, 13 

Apples, 95 

Arcelin (ar"se"la N '), Adrien (1838- 
1881), a French archeologist : explo- 
rations at Solutre, 56 

Archeozoic (ar"ke-6-zo'ik) era : de- 
scription of, 1 

Art : as magic for getting food, 93, 109, 
115; cave, 57; in the Aurignacian 
epoch, 48; in La Tene epoch, 84, 89; 
in the Magdalenian epoch, 48; in pre- 
historic times, 107; jewelry, 102; skill 
of Cro-Magnon man, 54 

Artifacts : at Cro-Magnon, 37 ; at Gibral- 
tar, 28; at Krapina, 28; at La Quina, 
32; during the Stone Age, 46; in 
Galilee, 34 

f For key to pronunciation, see page 157. 
* Asterisk denotes illustration. 

Ass : blood transfusion with horse, 10 

Asturian (as-tur'i-an) culture; charac- 
ter of, 65 ; description of, 63 

Aurignac (o"re"nyak'), France, 54 

Aurignacian (o"re-nya'shan) culture: 
character of, 48; created by Cro-Mag- 
non man, 37 ; description of, 52 ; food 
of, 92 ; time of, 45 ; Venus of Willen- 
dorf, 107* 

Australopithecus africanus (6s-tral'6- 
pith"e-ciis af'ri-kan-us), 13, 16 

Auvernier (6"var"nya/), Switzerland, 

Awls : found in shell heaps, 64, 65 ; of 
the Bronze Age, 76 

Axes : in Bronze Age, 76 ; in La Tene 
epoch, 84; in Neolithic period, 69*, 
70; of bronze, 75*; on Megalithic 
monuments, 118, 119*, 120*; sockets 
for, 70*, 71 ; see also Hand-ax 

Azilian (a-zil'i-an) culture : character 
of, 65 ; description of, 61 ; painted peb- 
bles, 62*; time of, 45 

Badegoule (bo "de-ghoul'), France, 36, 

Baechler (bek'ler), Emil (1868- ), 
a Swiss paleontologist, 108 

Baousso da Torre (ba-oo'so da to're), 
cave of, 39 

Bardon (bar"don'), L., a French pre- 
historian, 31 

Barley, 95 

Barma Grande (bar'ma gran'de), 39 

Basket-making: beginning of, 101 ; de- 
velopment of, 139 

Batons, 57 

Beads: of the -Bronze Age, 76, 103; of 
La Tene epoch, 90, 103 

Beakers, Bell, 76, 140 

Bear, Cave : food of prehistoric man, 64, 
93 ; in Cro-Magnon art, 94 

Begouen (ba"gwon'), Count Henri 
(1863- ), a French archeologist, 

Bell-beakers, 76, 140 




Belts : in the Bronze Age, 102 ; in Hall- 
statt culture, 78, 80 ; in La Tene epoch, 
89, 90*, 103 

Bessler (bes'ler), Hans, a Swiss arche- 
ologist, 103 

Birds : in cave art, 60, 112; rise of, 1 

Bisons : clay, 59 ; in Cro-Magnon art, 94 

Blinkenberg (blin'ken-berg), Christian 
S. (1863- ), a Danish archeologist, 

Bloksbjerg (blox'byerg), Denmark, 63 

Blood transfusion, 10 

Boars: favored for amulets, 90; in La 
Tene art, 84, 89; in Cro-Magnon art, 

Bone Cave, 32 

Bouyssonie (bwij"so"ni'). Abbe A., a 
French prehistorian, 31 

Bouyssonie (bwij"so"ni'). Abbe Jean, 
a French prehistorian, 31 

Bowls, 79 

Bracelets : in Bronze Age, 76, 102 ; in 
Hallstatt culture, 78, 80; in La Tene 
epoch, 82, 88, 103; in the Neolithic 
culture, 102 ; of bronze, 75* 

Breuil (bra'e'), Abbe Henri (1876- 
) , a French prehistorian : his 
studies of cave art, 59, 109; his study 
of Magdalenian deposits, 57 ; on 
epochs of Paleolithic period, 49; re- 
stored javelin thrower, 112; synchro- 
nizes glaciation and cultural epochs, 

Brno (ber'no), Moravia, 39 

Broch, 100 

Bronze : development of use of, 74 ; dis- 
covery of, 143 ; in La Tene epoch, 82, 
88; in the Hallstatt epoch, 78; shield 
found in Thames, 84, 85* 

Bronze Age : costumes, 101 ; culture of, 
72; fortifications, 98; habitations, 97; 
jewelry, 102; mining, 127; urns, 142 

Brooches : in Bronze Age, 76 

Bruniquel (brii"ni"keT), France, 58, 110 

Buckets, 79, 80* 

Buckles, 88 

Bulls, 86 

Burgh, 100 

Burials: in Bronze Age, 76; of La Tene 
epoch, 90; rites, 115 

Caches, 135 

Campignian ( cam-pin' l-an) culture: 
character of, 65 ; description of, 64 

Campigny (cam"pe"gne'), France, 64 

Cap-Blanc (kap-blon), France, 41 

Cat : blood transfusion from man, 10 

Cauldrons : in La Tene epoch, 86 ; in the 
Hallstatt epoch, 79 

Cave art : as magic for getting food, 93, 

109, 115; in the Old Stone Age, 48, 

57 ; of prehistoric times, 107 
Cave of Baousso da Torre, 39 
Cave of Massat, France, 58 
Cave of the Kids, 35 
Cave of the Robbers, 34 
Caves as prehistoric habitations, 96 
Cebidae (seb'i-de), 6, 15 
Cenozoic (se"n6-zo'ik) era: description 

of, 1 
Cercopithecidae (sur"ko-pi-the'si-de) , 

6, 15 
Cercopithecus (sur"ko-pi-the'kus), 7, 15 
Chaffaud (sha-fo), France, 58 
Chalcedony, Points of, 55 
Chalcolithic (kal"ko-lith'ik) Age, 73, 76 
Chalons - sur - Marne (sha"16n'-sur- 

Marn'), France, 85 
Chamois, 94 
Chancelade (shaN"se"lad"), France, 36, 

Chardin, Father Teilhard de : see Teil- 

hard de Chardin 
Chariot burials, 78, 90 
Chariots : found at La Tene, 84 ; of the 

Hallstatt epoch. 78 
Chellean (sheTe-an) culture: character 

of, 48 ; description of, 49 ; horizon at 

Saint-Acheul, 47* ; time of, 45 
Chelles (shel), France, 48, 50 
Chimpanzee : ancestor of, 16 ; blood 

transfusion from man, 10; can be in- 
fected with syphilis, 11; description of, 

8* 9, 15 
Chisels, 64, 65 

Chou Kou Tien (shob" koo" tyen"), 23 
Christy, Henry (1810-1865), an English 

ethnologist, 30, 58 
Clactonian (klak-to'ni-an) culture, 45 
Clothing, 101_ 
Cogul (ko-gool), Spain, 101 
Coins, 86 

Combe-Capelle (kom-be ka-pel), 40 
Combs: in Neolithic period, 104, 126; of 

the Bronze Age, 102; of the Iron Age, 

Commerce: development, 133; flint, 127; 

salt, 127 
Commont (kom"moN'), Victor (1866- 

1918), a French prehistorian, 45 
Compasses, 85 

Concise (kon"siz'), Switzerland, 123 
Copper : age of, 73 ; first used, 74 ; in 

commerce, 135 ; mining, 128 
Coral : in La Tene articles, 88 ; used for 

ornaments, 103 
Cornwall, mines of, 76 



Costumes, 101, 102* 

Crane, 94 

Crannogs (kran'ogs), 97 

Cro-Magnon (kro"ma"nyon') man: art 
of, 94; clothing of, 101 ; description of, 
20, 37 ; develops new tools, 53 ; food 
of, 92, 93; habitations of, 96 

Cromer forest bed, 49 

Cromlechs, 117 

Crozier on monuments, 119 

Crystal, Rock : tools of, frontispiece 

Culture : elements of, 91 ; increased by 
commerce, 135 ; of the Bronze Age, 
72; of the Mesolithic period, 61; of 
the Neolithic period, 66 

Cups, 79 

Curettes : in the Bronze Age, 104 ; of La 
Tene epoch, 89 

Daggers : of La Tene epoch, 84* ; of the 
Hallstatt epoch, 79 

Dart, Raymond ( 1893- ) , an Austra- 
lian anatomist and morphologist : dis- 
covers a fossil ape, 16 

Dart throwers, 48, 53, 57 

Dawson, Charles (1864-1916), an En- 
glish lawyer, 25 

Dechelette (de"she"let"), Joseph (1862- 
1914), a French prehistorian, 86 

Deer, Red, 94 

Devil's Tower, Gibraltar, 28 

Dinosaurs (di'no-sors), 1 

Diseases, Prehistoric, 137 

Dog : domestication of, 129 ; blood trans- 
fusion from man, 10 

Dolmens, 76, 116* 

Dress : in Hallstatt epoch, 80 ; of La 
Tene epoch, 88, 102* 

Dryopithecus (dri"6-pi-the'kus), 13, 16 

Dubois (du"bwa'), Eugene (1858- ), 
a Dutch geologist : discovers the Java 
man, 18, 22 

Duck, 94 

Ducrost (du'kro'), Abbe, 56 

Dugouts, 67 

Dun, 100 

Earrings : in Hallstatt culture, 78, 81 ; 
in La Tene culture, 88, 103 

Earth, Age of, 1 

Easter Island, 122* 

Ehringsdorf - Taubach (e'rings-dorf- 
tow'bakh) man: description of, 20, 26 

Elephant, Woolly : a source of food, 93 ; 
in Cro-Magnon art, 94 

Elk, 94 

Embroidery, invention of, 101, 139 

Enamel : in La Tene articles, 88, 103 ; 
in the Hallstatt epoch, 80; on the 
Battersea shield, 84, 85* 

Eneolithic (en"e-6-lith'ik) Age, 73 

Engraving, 48 

Eoanthropus dawsoni (e"6-an'thro-pus 
da'son-i) ; description of, 20, 25; skull 
of, 25* >± 

Eocene (e'6-sen) epoch : description of, 3 

Epi-Paleolithic period, 61 

Evans, Sir Arthur (1851- ), English 
archeologist and historian : quoted, 

Face urns, 86, 87*, 142 

Fibulae : in the Bronze Age, 102 ; in 
Hallstatt culture, 78, 81; in La Tene 
culture, 82, 83*, 88, 103 

Feldhofen (felt'ho-fen), Cave of, 30 

Fire, The taming of, 105 

Fischer quarry, 27 

Fish : in Cro-Magnon art, 94 ; in cave 
art, 60 ; used for food, 93 

Fishes, Rise of, 1 

Flax, 126 

Fletching, England, 25, 36 

Flint : hand ax of, 50*, 51* ; importance 
to prehistoric man, 47 ; in commerce, 
133; in prehistoric jewelry, 102; min- 
ing of, 126 

Flute, 123 

Font-de-Gaume (foN-du-gom), 54 

Food-getting, 92 

Foot : axis of support of, 9* ; changes in 
man's, 17; development of, 12 

Forbes Quarry, Gibraltar, 28 

Forceps, 85 

Forchhammer (fork'ham'er), Johan 
Georg (1794-1865), a Danish ge- 
ologist, 43 

Forests appear on the earth, 1 

Forks, 86 

Forts, Stone, 99* 

Fortifications, 98 

Fossils : apes, 13 ; men, 18 

Fraipont (fra"pon'), Julien (1857-1910), 
a Belgian archeologist : discoveries of, 

Frescoes: at Font-de-Gaume, 54; on 
ceiling of cavern at Altamira, 59 

Friend, J. Newton, 86 

Galilee : cranium from, 33^ ; discoveries 
in, 34 

Gavr'inis (gavr'niss), France: tumulus 
of, 119, 120* 

Gibbon : ancestor of, 16 ; blood transfu- 
sion from a orang-utan, 10; descrip- 
tion of, 7*, 15 

Gibraltar, 28, 36 

Glass : in La Tene culture, 103 ; used for 
beads, 103 



Goat, 129 

Gold: first used, 74; in commerce, 135; 
used for ornamentation, 103 

Goose, 94 

Gorilla : ancestor of, 16 ; description of, 
9, 15; foot of, 9* 

Gorjanovic-Kramberger (jor-ja'no-vek 
kram'bar-jer), K. (1856- ), a 
Croatian paleontologist : work of, 27 

Grapes, 95 

Gravers : in the Magdalenian epoch, 48, 
56, 57* ; use of, 53 

Gregory, William King (1876- ), an 
American paleontologist : quoted on 
fossil apes, 16 

Grimaldi (gri-mal'di) : culture, 45 ; 
skeletons from, 37, 38* 

Grossgartach (gros-gar'takh), Ger- 
many, 97 

Grotte des Enfants, Skeletons from, 38* 

Grouse : in Cro-Magnon art, 94 ; on 
javelin thrower, 112 

Gymnosperms (jim'no-spurms), 1 

Gypsum, 102 

Habitations, 96 

Hallstatt (hal'shtat) : amber beads 
found at, 103 ; commerce in amber, 
134; mining for salt, 127 

Hallstatt culture: costume of, 102; de- 
scription of, 78 ; house urns, 141 

Hand : development of man's, 17 

Hand-axes : in Acheulian epoch, 48, 50, 
51*; in Chellean epoch, 48, 49, 50*; in 
the Mousterian epoch, 48, 51, 52* ; see 
also Axes 

Handmill : in La Tene epoch, 86 

Hapalidae (ha-pal'i-de), 6, 15 

Hare: blood transfusion into rabbit, 

Harpoons : of the Aurignacian epoch, 48, 
53; of the Azilian culture period, 62, 
65 ; of the Magdalenian epoch, 48, 57, 

Hauser, Otto (1874- ), a German 
paleontologist, 40 

Heidelberg (hi'del-burg) man : descrip- 
tion of, 20, 26; jaw of, 29* 

Hildebrand (hel'de-brant), Hans,- 81 

Hog, 129 

Holmegaard (hol'me-gord), Denmark 

63 . 
Hominids fho-mm'ids), 3 

Homo heidelbergensis (ho'mo hi"del- 

berg-en'sis) : description of, 20, 26; 

jaw of, 29* 
Homo neandertalensis (ho'mo na- 

an"der-tal-en'sis) : description of, 20, 

28; skull of, 29* 

Homo sapiens (ho'mo sa'pi-enz) : de- 
scription of, 20, 37 

Hooton, Earnest Albert (1887- ), an 
American anthropologist: quoted on 
man's origin, 11 

Horse : a source of food, 93 ; blood 
transfusion from a man, 10; blood 
transfusion with other mammals, 10; 
domestication, 129 ; in cave art, 109* ; 
in Cro-Magnon art, 94; on javelin 
throwers, 113; favored for amulets, 90 

House urns, 141 

Hut pits, 64, 65; see also Habitations 

Huxley, Thomas (1825-1895), English 
biologist : quoted on the primates, 10 

Ilm (ilm) Valley, Germany: discoveries 
in, 26 

Implements : see Tools 

Incineration, 116 

Industry, 125 ; see also Artifacts 

Inhumation: in Bronze Age, 76; in La 
Tene epoch, 90; in Neolithic period, 

Inlays, 113 

Invertebrates during Paleozoic era, 1 

Iron Age : commerce, 135 ; culture of, 
77; habitations of, 97; ornaments of, 
103; urns, 142 

Iron mining, 128 

Jadeite, 102 

Java man, 18, 20 

Javelin throwers, 110, 112* 

Jet : in La Tene culture, 103 ; in pre- 
historic jewelry, 102 

Jewelry, 102 

Jutland, Denmark : bone shaft from, 60* 

Kampfe (kemp'fe) quarry, 27 

Kedung Brubus (ke'dung broo'boos), 

Keith, Sir Arthur (1866- ), an En- 
glish anatomist : quoted on Dart's dis- 
covery, 17 ; on the Piltdown man, 26 ; 
on primate characters, 10 

Keller, Ferdinand (1800-1881), a French 
archeologist, 118 

Kendeng (ken-deng), 19 

Keys, 85, 135 

Kids, Cave of the, 35 

King, William (1809-1886), an English 
paleontologist : names the Neandertal 
man, 30, 52 

Kitchen middens : at Asturias, Spain, 
63 ; in the Alps, 64 ; shell heaps, 64 

Klause (klows), Bavaria, 36, 40 

Knitting: invention of, 101, 139 

Knives : in the Aurignacian epoch, 53 ; 
in the Bronze Age, 76 ; in the Hallstatt 
epoch, 79 ; in La Tene epoch, 85, 86 



Krapina (kra'ye-na) man: description 

of, 20, 27 
Kulpe (kool'pa), Caucassus, 127 
La Chalosse (la sha-los), France: site 

of Pre-Chellean culture, 49 
La Chapelle-aux-Saints (la sha"pell-6- 

sans) : discoveries at, 31 ; skull found 

at, 29* 
La Combe (la kom) : bone point from, 

53*; flint hand-ax from, 52*; flint 

scraper from, 53* 
La Ferrassie (la fe-ra-se), France, 32 
La Madeleine (la mad"len'), France: 

discoveries at, 41 ; gravers from, 57* ; 

javelin thrower from, 111, 112*; type 

station of the Magdalenian epoch, 56* 
La Mairie (la ma-ri), France, 109 
La Mouthe (la mooth), France: lamp 

from, 105* fl 

La Quina (la ke'na), France, 32 
La Roche (la rosh'), France, 113 
La Tene (la ten) : epoch of, 81 ; costume 

of, 102* ; ornaments, 103 
Labor, 125 

Lamp, Stone, 105* 106 
Lance head : of bronze, 75* 
Langacker (la'ga-ker), Bavaria, 127 
Language, Development of, 123 
Lartet (lar"tet') ( Edward (1801-1871), 

a French paleontologist and archeolog- 

ist, 30, 54, 58 
Laugerie-Basse (lo-je-re-bas), France, 

36, 41 
Laugerie-Haute (lo-je-re-ho), France, 

Laurel-leaf blades, 48, 55* 
Le Fourneau-du-Diable (lu foor"n5 du 

dyab"), France, 59 
Le Moustier (lu moo-ste-a), France, 30, 

Le Roc (lu rok), France, 36, 40, 59 
Le Rouzic (lu ru"zik'), Zacharie, a 

French prehistorian, 118, 121 
Le Veyrier (lu va"re"a'), France, 58 
Lemuroidea (lem"u-roi'de-a), 6, 15 
Lentils, 95 

Levalloisian (le-val"oi-si'an) culture, 45 
Life: appears on the earth, 1, 4 
Lignite: figurines of, 113; in La Tene 

culture, 103; in prehistoric jewelry, 

Limestone: in prehistoric jewelry, 102 
Lion : on coins, 86 
Locks : development of, 85 ; invention 

of, 135 
Lohest (lo"est'), Max (1857-1926), a 

Belgian archeologist : discoveries of, 


Macalister, Robert Alexander Stuart 
(1870- ), an Irish archeologist, 98 

McCown, Theodore D., an American 
archeologist, 35 

Magdalenian culture : character of, 48 ; 
created by Cro-Magnon man, 37; de- 
scription of, 56; discoveries at type 
station, 41 ; engraving, 109* ; figurines, 
113; javelin thrower, 111, 112*; slate 
pebble, 114, 115*; strike-a-lights, 106; 
time of, 45 

Magic: in getting food, 93, 109, 115 

Maglemosean (mag-le-mos'e-an) cul- 
ture : bone shaft from, 60* ; character 
of, 65; description of, 63; habitations, 

Mammoth, 64; see also Woolly Elephant 

Man: and life, 4; his nearest of kin, 5; 
his ascent, 12; fossil men, 18; begin- 
nings of culture, 42; culture of the 
Paleolithic period, 49; the Mesolithic 
period, 61 ; the Neolithic period, 66 ; 
the Bronze Age, 72 ; of the Iron Age, 
77 ; elements and growth of prehistoric 
culture, 91 ; blood-transfusion into a 
chimpanzee, 10; foot of, 9*; in cave 
art, 60 

Mane er H'roeck (man"e"rek'), France, 

Mane Lud (man lud), France, 118, 121 

Martin, Henri, French prehistorian; his 
discoveries at Le Roc, 41, 59 ; his work 
at La Quina, 32 

Mas d' Azil (mas da" zll'), France : type 
station of Azilian culture, 62; javelin 
thrower from, 112; painted pebbles 
from, 62*, 65 

Massat (mas'sa), Cave of, France, 58 

Massenat (ma"sa"na'), £lie, French 
prehistorian, 41 

Mauer (mow'er), Germany, 26, 36 

Mayor (ma'yor'), Frangois (1779- 
1855), a Swiss professor of medicine 
and natural history: finds engraved 
baton, 58 

Megalithic culture, 118 

Megalithic monuments, 69 

Menhirs, 117 

Meon Hill, England, 87 

Merveilles (mer-vil'), Abri des : tools 
from, frontispiece 

Mesolithic (mes"6-lith'ik) period : cul- 
ture of, 61; habitations, 96; writing, 

Mesozoic (mes"6-zo'ik) era, 1 

Metals : development of, 143 ; discovery 
of methods of extracting and handling, 
73; in commerce, 135 



Metals, Age of : fortifications, 98 ; habi- 
tations of, 97 ; see also Bronze, Copper, 
Gold, Iron, Silver 

Micoquean (mic-6-ke'an) culture, 45 
Microlith industry: in the Maglemo- 
sean culture period, 65 ; in the Tarde- 
noisian culture period, 63, 65; in the 
Paleolithic period, 56 

Microliths on bone shaft, 60* 

Miller, Gerrit Smith (1869- ), Amer- 
ican zoologist, 129 

Millet, 95 

Milling stones: associated with female 
burials, 126 ; found at Campigny, 65 ; 
in La Tene epoch, 86 

Mining, 74, 126 

Miocene (mi'6-sen) epoch, 3 

Mirrors, 104 

Moir (mwar), J(ames) Reid (1879- 
) , an English prehistorian, 45 

Mollusk on monuments, 118 

Money, 87 

Monkeys : can be infected with syphilis, 
11 ; new world, 6, 15 

Montelius (mon-ta'le-us), Oscar (1843- 
1921), Swedish prehistorian, 69 

Montlingen (mont-lin'gen), Switzer- 
land, 103 

Monuments to the dead, 116* 

Moor villages, 96 

Mortillet (mor"t'i"ya), Gabriel de 
(1821-1898), a French prehistorian, 
31, 52 

Mousterian (moos-te'ri-an) culture : 
character of, 48; description of, 51; 
horizon at Saint-Acheul, 47* ; in Gali- 
lee, 34; named, 31, 52; time of, 45 

Mugharet el Zuttiyeh (moo-ga-ret el 
zob-ti-ye), 34 

Mullerup (mul'le-rup), Denmark, 63, 96 

Music, Development of, 123 

Musk ox, 94 

Neander Valley, 30 

Neandertal man: art of, 108; cranium 
from Galilee, 32; culture of, 51; de- 
scription of, 20, 28 ; skull of, 29* 

Needles : in the Aurignacian epoch, 48, 
53; in the Magdalenian epoch, 57; in 
the Solutrean epoch, 48, 57 

Neolithic (ne"6-lith'ik) period: burial 
at Rossen, 142*; burial rites, 115; 
clothing, 101 ; culture of, 66 ; com- 
merce, 133; development of textiles 
and pottery, 139 ; development of the 
wheel, 131 ; fortifications, 98 ; flutes, 
123; habitations, 97; jewelry, 102; 
mining, 126 ; surgery, 137 ; toilet arti- 
cles, 104 ; uses of fire multiplied, 106 

Netting: invention of, 101, 139 

Nilsson, Sven (1787-1883), a Swedish 
zoologist, 43 

Norfolk, England, 49 » 

Nuttall, George Henry Falkiner (1862- 
), professor of zoology, Cam- 
bridge University, England, 10 

Obercassel (6'ber-ca-sel), Germany: 
discoveries at, 41 

Old Stone Age : see Stone Age 

Oligocene (61'i-go-sen") epoch: descrip- 
tion of, 3 

Onions, 95 

Orang-utan: ancester of, 16; blood 
transfusion into a gibbon, 10; can be 
infected with syphilis, 11; description 
of, 7, 15 

Ox: domestication, 129; favored for 
amulets, 90; in Cro-Magnon art, 94; 
on monuments, 118 

Ox, Musk, 94 

Palaeosimia (pa"le-6-sim'i-a) : descrip- 
tion of, 13, 16 

Paleolithic (pa"le-6-lith'ik) period : cul- 
ture of, 48, 49 ; habitations, 96 ; stone 
lamp, 105*, 106 ; tools, 125 

Paleozoic (pa"le-6-zo'ik) era, 1 

Parapithecus (par"a-pi-the'kus), 13, 16 

Parrot beak gravers, 48, 56 

Partridge, 94 

Paviland (pa'vT-land), Wales, 36, 39 

Pea, 95 

Pears, 95 

Pebble, Slate, 114, 115* 

Pebbles, Painted : of Azilian culture 
period, 62*, 65; a system of writing, 

Pei (pa), W. C, a Chinese scientist, 

Pekarna (pe-kar'ma), Moravia, 114* 

Peking man: cranium of, 23*, 24*; de- 
scription of, 20, 22 

Pequart (pa"kar'), Marthe Lucie Nes- 
torine (1884- ), a French prehisto- 
rian, 118, 121 

Petersfels (pa'ters-fels), Baden, 113 

Petit Mont (pe-te' mon), France, 118, 

Petit-Morin (pe-te' m5-raN), France, 

Petrie (pe'tre), Sir Flinders (1853- 
/, British Egyptologist, 77 

Peu-Richard (pu"ri'shar'), France, 98 

Peyrony (pe"ro'ne"), Q., French arche- 
ologist : his discoveries at La Fer- 
rassie, 32 ; his discoveries at La Roche, 
113; his discoveries at Le Fourneau- 
du-Diable, 59 



Piette (pe-et'), Eduard (1827-1906), a 
French archeologist, 62 

Pile Villages, 67, 68* 

Piltdown man: description of, 20, 25; 
skull of, 25* \ 

Pins : in Hallstatt culture, 78 ; of bronze, 
75* ; of the Bronze Age, 76, 103^ 

Pithecanthropus erectus (pith"e-kan- 
thro'pus e-rek'tus) : description of, 18, 
20; skull of, 18* 

Pittard (pe-tar'), Eugene (1867- ), 
a Swiss anthropologist, 57 

Plants: appears on the earth, 1, 4; do- 
mestication of, 66, 129; in cave art, 
60 ; source of food, 92 

Pleistocene (plis'to-sen) epoch, 3 

Pliocene (pli'6-sen) epoch, 3 

Plows, 86 

Points : in the Aurignacian epoch, 53, 
56; in Chellean epoch, 48, 50; in the 
Mousterian epoch, 48, 51 

Pokers : in La Tene epoch, 86 

Poniards : in the Bronze Age, 76 ; in 
Hallstatt culture, 78 

Pothangers, 86 

Pottery: development of, 139; found at 
Campigny, 65 ; in the Bronze Age, 76 ; 
in the Hallstatt epoch, 79 ; in La Tene 
epoch, 86; in the Shell-heap culture 
period, 64, 65 

Prayers : expressed by cave art, 60 

Predmost (ptched'most), Moravia: dis- 
coveries at, 39; skulls from, 40* 

Primates : characters of, 6 

Pliopithecus (pli"6-pi-the'kus), 13, 16 

Propliopithecus ( pr6-pli"6-pi-the'kus ) , 
13, 16 

Proterozoic (prot"er-6-z6'ik) era, 1 

Pterodactyls (ter"6-dak'tils), 1 

Puydt (pit), Marcel de, a Belgian pre- 
historian, 30 

Pycraft, W. P. (1868- ), an English 
natural historian, 34 

Rabbit : blood transfusion from a hare, 10 

Rams : favored for amulets, 90 

Raymonden (ra-moisr-daN), France, 41 

Razors : development of, 104 ; in Bronze 
Age, 76; in Hallstatt culture, 78; in 
La Tene epoch, 86, 89; of bronze, 

Reinach (ri'nak), Salomon, 1858- ), 
a French archeologist, 81 

Reindeer: in cave art, 109*; in Cro- 
Magnon art, 94 

Reptiles : rise of, 1 

Rhodesian man : description of, 32 ; cra- 
nium of, 31*, 32* 

Rings, Finger : of the Bronze Age, 102 ; 
in La Tene epoch, 88, 104 

Robenhausen (ro'ben-how"sen), Switz- 
erland. 101. 139 

Roch Priol (rosh pre-6l), France, 118 

Rock crystal : tools of, frontispiece 

Rock shelters : as prehistoric habitations, 

Roebuck, 94 

Rye, 95 

Saccopastore (sa"ko-pas-to're), Italy, 
28, 36 

Safety-pins : see Fibulae 

Saint-Acheul (san"ta"shull"), France: 
hand-ax found at, 51*; sand and 
gravel pit at, 47* ; site of Chellean cul- 
ture, 49; type station of Acheulian 
culture, 51 

Salt : commerce in, 134 ; mining, 127 

Sautuola (so-tu-6'la), Marcelino (1888- 
), a Spanish archeologist, 59 

Schaaffhausen (sha'how"sen), Her- 
mann, a German anthropologist, 30 

Schist : in La Tene culture, 103 ; in pre- 
historic jewelry, 102 

Schliz (schlitz), Alfred (1849-1915), a 
German anthropologist, 97 

Schlosser (shlo'ser), Max, German 
paleotologist, 22 

Schoetensack (sha'ten-sak), Otto 
(1850- ), a German paleontologist, 

Schwab, 81 

Scissors: first appearance, 104; of La 
Tene epoch, 85, 86* 

Scrapers: at Mas d' Azil, 62; in Chel- 
lean epoch, 48, 50; in the Mousterian 
epoch, 48, 51, 53* ; in the Tardenoisian 
culture period, 65 

Scratchers : in the Tardenoisian culture 
period, 63; of the Aurignacian epoch, 

Sculpture : from cave-art era, 58 ; in the 
Aurignacian epoch, 48 

Scythes, 86 

Semnopithecus (sem"no-pi-the'kus), 7, 

Sepulture : see Burial 

Serpent: on Megalithic monuments, 118, 

Sheep : in Cro-Magnon art, 94 

Shell-heap culture : character of, 65 ; de- 
scription of, 64 

Shields: of La Tene epoch, 84, 85; on 
monuments, 119 

Sickles, 86 

Silver : used for ornamentation, 103 

Simiidae (si-ml'i-de), 6, 15 

Sinanthropus pekinensis (sin-an'thro-pus 
pg"kin-en'sis) : cranium of, 23*, 24; 
description of, 20, 22 



Situla, 79, 80* 

Sivapithecus indicus (siv"a-pi-the'kus 
in-di'kus), 16 

Slate: in prehistoric jewelry, 102 

Smith, Grafton Elliot (1871- ), an 
English anatomist : quoted on Peking 
man, 24; quoted on Rhodesian man, 

Soap : invention of, 89 

Sockets, Staghorn, 70*, 71 

Sollas, William Johnson (1849- ), 
British geologist, 39 

Solutre (so"-lu"tra"), France: discov- 
eries at, 40; type station of the Solu- 
trean epoch, 55 

Solutrean (so-lu'tri-an) culture: char- 
acter of, 48; created by Cro-Magnon 
man, 37; description of, 54; horizon 
at Saint-Acheul, 47* ; time of, 45 

Speech : ability of Java man, 22 

Spinning : invention of, 101, 139 

Spits, 86 

Spokeshaves, 48, 50 

Spy, Belgium, 30, 36, 52 

Stags, 62, 65 

Staigue fort, 99* 

Stone Age : why so called, 46 ; culture of, 
48, 49 ; fossil men, 18 

Stone implements, 64, 65 

Strawberries, 95 

Sub-Crag industry, 45 

Sun : as a symbol, 121 ; worship of, 81 

Surgery in Neolithic times, 137 

Svaerdborg (svard'borg), Denmark, 36, 
63, 96 

Swan, 94 _ 

Swords: in Bronze Age, 76; in Hall- 
statt culture, 78, 79*; in La Tene 
epoch, 82, 84* 

Syphilis, 10 

Szeleta (se-le'ta) Cave, Hungary, 55 

Table des Marchands (tab da mar- 
shax), 119. 121 

Tachen Paul (ta'chen" pal"), 121 

Taffeta, 101, 139 

Tardenoisian (tar-de-noi'si-an) culture : 
character of, 65 ; description of, 63 ; 
time of, 45 

Tarsioidea (tar"si-oi-de'a), 6, 15 

Tarsioids (tar'si-oids), 13 

Teihard de Chardin (ta"yar" du shar- 
dasr), Father, French paleontologist, 

Terramare (ter"a-ma'ra), 97 

Textiles : development of, 139 

Thomsen, Christian Jiirgensen (1788- 
1865), a Danish scientist, 43 

Threshing, 126 _ 

Three, The magic number, 90 

Tischler (tish'ler), Otto, a German 
anthropologist, 81 

Tin: in commerce, 135 

Toilet articles, 104 

Tools: agricultural, 126; for flint min- 
ing, 127; from Le Bouitou, 54*; in the 
Asturian culture period, 63, 65 ; in the 
Bronze Age, 75*, 76; in the Campig- 
nian culture period, 65; in La Tene 
epoch, 84; in the Mesolithic period, 
65 ; in the Old Stone Age, 48 ; in the 
Tardenoisian culture period, 63, 65 ; 
of flint, 47 ; of Spanish topaz and rock 
crystal, frontispiece; polishing of, in- 
troduced, 67 

Topaz : tools of, frontispiece 

Torques : in the Bronze Age, 102; in La 
Tene epoch, 88*, 103 

Transportation : development of, 131 ; by 
water, 97 ; dugouts, 67 

Tree-climbing, 12 

Trepanations, 137*, 138 

Trinil (tre-neT), 19 

Trois-Freres (trwa frar), France, 113 

Trousers, 88 

Tuc d' Audoubert (tuk do-doo-bar), 
Cavern of : clay bisons in, 59 

Tumuli : in Bronze Age, 76 ; in Hallstatt 
epoch, 78; in La Tene epoch. 90 

Turnips, 95 

Turquoise, Altered, 102 

Turville-Petre, Francis, an English 
archeologist, 34 

Tweezers: in the Bronze Age, 104; in 
La Tene epoch, 89; of bronze, 75 

Twill, 101, 139 

Urns: face, 86, 87* 142; house, 141; in 
Hallstatt culture, 78, 80 

Valle, Cave of : discoveries at, 63 

Vases: in Bronze Age, 76; in Hallstatt 
culture, 78, 79 ; of gold and silver, 103 

Venus of Willendorf, 107* 

Vertebrates : first appearances. 1 

Vezere (va'zar") Valley, France, 58 

Villages : moor, 96 ; pile, 97 

Vinelz (ve'nelts), Switzerland: arti- 
facts from, 70* 

Vouga (v6o"ga"), fonile, a Swiss 
archeologist, 82 

Vouga (voo"ga"), Paul, a Swiss arche- 
ologist: at La Tene, 82; discovers 
wooden shield, 84 ; his study of de- 
posits at Lake Neuchatel, 71 

Wady-Magarah (wa'de ma-ga-ra) : 
mines of, 74 

Weapons: of the Bronze Age, 75*, 76; 
of flint. 47 ; of Hallstatt epoch, 79 ; of 
La Tene epoch, 84 

Weavers' combs, 89 



Weaving : invention of, 101, 139 

Weidenreich (vi'den-rikh), Franz, a 
German prehistorian, 27 

Weimar, 26 

Weimar culture, 45 

Wheat, 95 

Wheel : as a symbol, 121 ; in ornamenta- 
tion, 84, 89; invention of, 131 

Wheel, Potter's, 140 

Willendorf (ve'len-dorf), Venus of, 

Willow- leaf implements : in the Solu- 

trean epoch, 48, 55 
Worsaae (vor'sa-e), Jens Jacob Asmus- 

sen (1821-1885), a Danish antiquarian, 

Writing : development of, 123 

Key to Pronunciation 

in day 

e as in mete 

i as in time 

o as in not 

" senate 

e " " event 

t " " idea 

6 " " lord 

" add 

e " " end 

i " " ill 

e " " term 

I " " firm 

u " " use 

" care 

u " " unite 

" far 

g = j (gentile) 

6 " " old 

11 " " us 

" last 

g as in get 

6 " " obey 

u " " turn 

n indicates that in uttering the vowel in the same syllable the breath or voice passes 
through both nose and mouth — the n is not pronounced. 

Date Due 

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NOV 2 2 '62 

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